AP Euro Chapter 14 IDs

  1. The Scientific Revolution
    • Widespread 16th & 17th Centuries
    • Slow, not rapid.
    • Brilliant people suggesting wrong as well as useful ideas. 
    • Only involved a few hundred people. 
  2. Blaise Pascal
    • (1623-1662)
    • Pensees
    • French mathematician & Physical scientist
    • Surrendered his wealth to pursue an auster, self-disciplined life. 
    • He aspired to write a work that would refute both dogmatism and skepticism.
    • He allied himself with the Jansenists, 17th century Catholic opponents of the Jesuits. 
  3. Rene Descartes
    • (1596-1650) France
    • Mathematician who invented analytic geometry
    • He developed scientific method that relied more on deduction-reasoning from general principle to arrive at specific facts than empirical observation and induction.
    • He published Discourse on Method

    He divided existing things into two categories, Mind & Body.
  4. Francis Bacon
    • (1561-1626)
    • A lawyer, high royal official, and the author of histories, moral essays, and philosophical discourses.
    • Known as the Father of Empiricism and of experimentation in science. 
    • He wrote The advancement of Learning, Novum Organum, and The New Atlantis.
    • "Men of experiment and men of dogmas"
  5. Isaac Newton
    • (1642-1727)
    • The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy better known as Principia Mathematica
    • Idea of Gravity. 
    • He believed in empricism. 
  6. Galileo Galilei
    • (1564-1642) Italy
    • Created the telescope from a Dutch instrument. 
    • He wrote the Starry Messenger and Letters on Sunspots.
  7. Johannes Kepler
    • (1571-1630) German
    • Astronomer
    • Assistant to Tycho Brahe.
    • He like the heliocentric model. 
    • He searched for data to show proof of a sun-centered universe. 
    • He came up with elliptical orbits.
  8. Margaret Cavendish
    • (1623-1673)
    • Her marriage to the duke of Newcastle introduced her into a circle of natural philosophers. 
    • Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy
    • Grounds of Natural Philosophy
    • Only woman in 17th century allowed to visit a meeting of the Royal Society of London. 
  9. John Locke
    • (1632-1704)
    • He proved to be the most influential philosophical and political thinker of the 17th century.
    • Two Treatises on Government
    • First, proved important by clearing philosophical decks.
    • Second, presented an extended argument for a government that must necessarily be both responsible.
  10. Thomas Hobbes
    • (1588-1679)
    • Classicist
    • History of the Peloponnesian War
    • Leviathan
    • Humans are inclined to a "perpetual and restless desire"
    • He thought rulers should be absolute and unlimited in their power.
  11. Peter Paul Rubens
    • (1577-1640) Flemish
    • Roman Catholic artist was employed to decorate the ceiling of the Banqueting Hall at his palace in London with painting commemorating his father James I
    • Leading religious painter of the Catholic Reformation. 
  12. Tycho Brahe
    • (1546-1601) Danish
    • He did not embrace Copernicus's view of the universe and actually spent most of his life advocating an earth-centered system.
    • He suggested Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun, but that the moon, sun, and other plants revolved around earth.
  13. Nicolaus Copernicus
    • (1473-1543) Polish
    • Polish priest and an astronomer
    • On the year of his death he published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, which has been described as "a revolution-making rather than a revolutionary text."
    • His literary work challenged the Ptolemaic system. 
  14. Baroque Art
    • 17th Century
    • Art historians use this term to denote the style associated with 17th century painting, sculpture, and architecture. 
    • The work of these artists served both religious and secular ends. 
    • They often portrayed scenes from the Bible and from the lives of saints intended to instruct the observer in religious truths. 
  15. Witch-Hunts
    • 1400-1700 Western Land
    • Courts sentenced an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 people to death for harmful magic, and diabolical witchcraft.
    • Witches were said to attend mass meeting known as sabbats, to which they were believed to fly.
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AP Euro Chapter 14 IDs