Anatomy 2 Exam 1

  1. The heart is the size of a fist and weighs 
    250-300 grams
  2. The heart is found in _________ and two thirds lies left of the _______ line
    • mediastinum
    • midsternal 
  3. The base of the heart is directed toward the _________ and the apex points toward the ________
    • right shoulder
    • left hip
  4. The heart is enclosed in a double walled sac called the 
  5. Deep to the pericardium is the 
    serious pericardium
  6. THe ____________ lines the inside of the pericardium
    parietal pericardium
  7. THe ___________, or epicardium, covers the surface of the heart
    visceral pericardium
  8. THe ___________ is composed mainly of cardiac muscle and forms the bulk of the heart
  9. THe ____________ lines the chambers of the heart 
  10. THe ______________ are the receiving chambers of the heart
    right and left atria
  11. The _____________ pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk; the _____________ pumps blood into the aorta
    • right ventricle
    • left ventricle
  12. THe right side of the heart pumps blood into the __________ circuit; the left side pumps blood into the _________ circuit 
    • pulmonary
    • systemic
  13. Does the heart receive nourishment from the blood as it pass through the chamber?
  14. The ______________ provides the blood supply for the heart cells
    coronary circulation 
  15. IN a ___________ there is prolonged coronary blockage that leads to cell death 
    myocardial infarction 
  16. The __________ and ________ prevent back flow into the atria when the ventricles contract
    tricuspid and bicuspid valves
  17. WHen the heart is relaxed the __________ are closed, and when the heart contracts the __________ are open
    • semilunar valves 
    • semilunar valves
  18. Cardiac muscle is ________ and contraction occurs via the 
    • striated
    • sliding filament mechanism
  19. The cells of cardiac muscle fiber are 
    • short
    • fat
    • branched
    • interconnected by intercalated discs
  20. THe heart contracts as _____ or not at all
  21. THe heart's absolute refractory period is longer than a _____________, preventing 
    • skeletal muscle's 
    • tetanic contractions
  22. The heart relies exclusively on _________ for its energy demands 
    aerobic respiration 
  23. Cardiac muscle is capable of switching _________ to use whatever nutrient supply is available
    nutrient pathways
  24. ______________ is made up of specialized cardiac cells that initiate and distribute impulses, ensuring that the heart depolarizes in an orderly fashion
    Intrinsic conduction system
  25. THe ___________ cells have an unstable resting potential, called pacemaker potentials, tat continuously depolarizes
  26. Impulses pass through the auto rhythmic cardiac cells in the following order:
    • 1. Sinoatrial node
    • 2. Atrioventricular node
    • 3.Atrioventricular bundle
    • 4.Right and left bundle branches
    • 5. Purkinje fibers 
  27. The autonomic nervous system modifies the heartbeat: the ____________ increases rate and depth of the heartbeat, and the ____________ slows the heartbeat
    • sympathetic center
    • parasympathetic center
  28. An _____________ monitors and amplifies the electrical signals of the heart and records it as an electrocardiogram (ECG)
  29. The first heart sound, lug, corresponds to the closure of the _, and occurs during _________
    • AV valves
    • Ventricular systole
  30. THe second heart sound, dup, corresponds to the closure of the ______, and occurs during ___________
    • semilunar valves
    • ventricular diastole 
  31. ___________ are extraneous heart sounds due to turbulent back flow of blood through a valve that does not close tightly
    heart murmurs 
  32. _______ is the contractile phase of the cardiac cycle and _________ is the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle
    • systole
    • diastole
  33. Cardiac Cycle
    • a. Ventricular Filling: Mid-to-Late Diastole
    • b. Ventricular Systole
    • c. Isovolumetric Relaxation: Early Diastole
  34. ______________ is defined as the amount of blood pumped out of a ventricle per beat, and is calculated as the product of stroke volume and heart rate
    cardiac output
  35. Regulation of Stroke Volume:
    • a. Preload: the Frank-Starling law of the heart states that the critical factor controlling stroke volume is the degree of stretch of cardiac muscle cells immediately before they contract
    • b. Contractility: contractile strength increases if there is an increase in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration
    • c. Afterload: ventricular pressure that must be overcome before blood can be ejected from the heart. 
  36. Regulation of Heart Rate:
    • a. Sympathetic stimulation of pacemaker cells increases heart rate and contractility, while parasympathetic inhibition of cardiac pacemaker cells decreases heart rate
    • b. Epinephrine, thyroxine, and calcium influence heart rate
    • c. Age, gender, exercise, and body temperature all influence heart rate.
  37. Homeostatic Imbalance of Cardiac Output:
    • a. Congestive heart failure occurs when the pumping efficiency of the heart is so low that blood circulation cannot meet tissue needs
    • b. Pulmonary congestions occurs when one side of the heart fails, resulting in pulmonary edema
  38. Aging aspects of the heart:
    • 1. Sclerosis and thickening of the valve flaps occurs over time, in response to constant pressure of the blood against the valve flaps. 
    • 2. Decline in cardiac reserve occurs due to a decline in efficiency of sympathetic stimulation
    • 3. Fibrosis of cardiac muscle may occur in the nodes of the intrinsic conduction system, resulting in arrhythmias.
    • 4. Atherosclerosis is the gradual deposit of fatty plaques in the walls of the systemic vessels
Card Set
Anatomy 2 Exam 1