BIO 116 Ch. 12

  1. Is HIV the same in animals?
  2. Do animals have SIMILAR viruses to HIV?
  3. What is the hybrid virus they use for testing in monkeys?
    SHIV - Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  4. How have mice been used to test for antivirals?
    they are injected with B and T lymphocytes so they can be infected with HIV for testing
  5. Why is an HIV vaccine so hard to create?
    HIV keeps fucking mutating and evading the immune system
  6. Have there been HIV vaccines?
    yes, but only really in monkeys
  7. What would a combination vaccine need to stimulate?
    Humoral (antibodies) and cell mediated (T cell)
  8. attenuated vaccine:
    viruses that are designed to not cause infection but can stimulate immune response.
  9. Questions for developing antivirals:
    • 1) best method for delivery to body
    • 2) what are the side effects
    • 3) is the compound effective
    • 4) is the compound MORE effective than current drugs
  10. Phase I Clinical trials:
    uninfected people are tested to determine the side effects and safety of the drug, and also determine the most effective delivery and dosage
  11. Phase II Clinical trials:
    small # of HIV+ people are given the drug to evaluate the effectiveness (efficacy) by a reduction in symptoms, reduction in measured viral infection, or an increase in immune function
  12. Phase III Clinical trials:
    many HIV+ people participate in efficacy studies conducted in many different locations. Once the drug passes this phase, the drug can be approved by the FDA.
  13. What is important to do to current drugs?
    keep improving them!
  14. How does Fuseon work?
    blocks entry after HIV has bound to the target cell
  15. antisense molecule:
    bind to viral RNA and may lead to the destruction of the new complex
  16. ribozyme:
    cut viral RNA thus inactivating any further activity
  17. What can be used to restore the immune system?
    stems cells and bone marrow transplants
  18. Although there are vaccines and shit for HIV, what else needs to be treated?
    opportunistic infections!
  19. What have community-based trials created?
    created opportunities for administration of experimental drugs by local physicians
  20. Parallel track:
    a way for patients that live too far away from a research hospital to participate through their individual doctor
  21. surrogate endpoints:
    for diseases that take year to develop, alternate endpoints are decided on to determine effectiveness (with HIV, if the patient developed HIV antibodies)
  22. Two main goals of HIV education:
    • understanding about prevention
    • understanding and compassion
  23. What is research necessary for?
    • education and prevention
    • developing drugs agains HIV
  24. What is optimistic about HIV?
    we have time on our side because HIV takes a shitload of time to develop
Card Set
BIO 116 Ch. 12