psyc 218 mid-term 1

  1. population
    a population is the complete set of individuals, objects, or scores that the investigator is interested in studying.
  2. sample
    a sample is a subset of the population
  3. variable
    a variable is any property or characteristic of some event, object, or person that may have different values at different times depending on the conditions
  4. Independent variable (IV)
    the IV in an experiment is the  variable that is systematically manipulated by the investigator
  5. Dependent Variable (DV)
    the DV in an experiment is the variable that the investigator measures to determine the effect of the independent variable
  6. Data
    the measurements that are made on the subjects of an experiment are called data
  7. statistic
    a statistic is a number calculated on sample data that quantifies a characteristic of the sample
  8. parameter
    a parameter is a number calculated on population data that quantifies a characteristc of the population
  9. Descriptive statistics...
    is concerned with techniques that are used to describe or characterize the obtained data
  10. Inferential statistics...
    involves techniques that are used the obtained sample data to infer to populations
  11. Observational studies
    no variables are actively manipulated--> can't say anything about causality; includes 1) naturalistic observation, 2) parameter estimation, 3) correlation
  12. True experiments
    causality is assigned--> manipulate one variable, compare to un-manipulated situation--> is there an effect?
  13. Random sampling:
    equal probability of being selected for the study
  14. Nominal scale:
    lowest level of measurement; often used with variables that are qualitative in nature; e.g. types of jogging shoes, gender, nationality, etc
  15. Ordinal scale:
    possess a relatively low level of property of “magnitude”; objects that are being measured are “rank ordered”; e.g. order an individual places in a race-first, second third
  16. Interval scale:
    possesses the properties of magnitude and an equal interval between adjacent units; no absolute zero point; e.g., Celsius scale
  17. Ratio scale:
    same properties as Interval scale, but possesses a true zero point; e.g., reaction time, weight, age, etc.
  18. Acronym for measurement Scales?
    • NOIR:
    • Nominal
    • Ordinal
    • Interval
    • Ratio
  19. Continuous variable: 
    can theoretically have an infinite number of values between adjacent units on the scale.
  20. Discrete variable: 
     there are no possible values between adjacent units on the scale.
  21. Real limits of a variable:
    those values that are above and below the recorded value by one half of the smallest measuring unit of the scale.
  22. A frequency distribution...
    presents the score values and their frequency of occurrence
  23. a relative frequency distribution...
    indicates the proportion of the total number of scores that occurs in each interval
  24. A cumulative frequency distribution...
    indicates the number of scores that fall below the upper real limit of each interval
  25. cumulative percentage distribution ...
    indicates the percentage of scores that fall below the upper real limit of each interval
  26. a percentile of percentile point... 
    is the value on the measurement scale below which a specified percentage of scores in the distribution fall
  27. the percentile rank...
    of a score is the percentage of scores with values lower then the score in question
  28. a curve is symmetrical ...
    if when folded in half the two sides coincide
  29. if a curve is not symmetrical, it is... 
  30. when a  curve is positively skewed,...
    most of the scores occur at the lower values of the horizontal axis and the curve tails off toward the higher end.
  31. when a curve is negatively skewed,...
    most of the scores occur at the higher values of the horizontal axis and the curve tails off toward the lower end
  32. When constructing a Frequency Disstribution of Grouped scores. What is the formula for Determining interval width ( Image Upload 1 )?
    Image Upload 2
  33. The arithmetic mean is defined as...
    the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores
  34. Image Upload 3
    • Image Upload 4 (mean of sample)
    • N = number of scores 
  35. Image Upload 5
    Image Upload 6 (mean of population set of scores)
  36. The median is ...
    defined as the scale value below which 50% of the scores fall. It is therefore the same thing as Image Upload 7
  37. The mode is...
    defined as the most frequent scores in the distribution. (when all scores in the distribution have the same frequency  it is customary to say that the distribution has no mode) 
  38. Image Upload 8
    Negative skew
  39. Image Upload 9
    positive skew
  40. Image Upload 10
    bell-shaped curve
  41. The range is...
    • defined as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in the distribution
    • Image Upload 11
  42. A deviation score...
    tells how far away the raw score is from the mean of its distribution
  43. in equation form, what is a deviation score for sample data and for population data?
    Image Upload 12

    Image Upload 13
  44. in equation form, what is the standard deviation score of a sample by the raw scores method?
    Image Upload 14
  45. A z-score is...
    a transformed score that designates how many standard deviation units the corresponding raw score is above or below the mean 
  46. Image Upload 15 ?
    for population and sample
    • Image Upload 16  (for sample)
    • Image Upload 17 (for population)
  47. A scatter plot is...
    a graph of paired X and Y values
  48. A linear relationship between two variables is...
    one in which the relationship can be most accurately represented by a straight line.
  49. finding slope Image Upload 18 ? i.e. the slope of a line
    Image Upload 19
  50. Regression is ...
    a topic that considers using the relationship between two or more variables for prediction
  51. A regression line is...
    a best fitting line used for prediction
  52. A perfect relationship is...
    one in which a positive or negative relationship exists and all of the points fall on the line.
  53. An imperfect relationship is...
    one in which a relationship exits, but all of the points do not fall on the line.
  54. A correlation coefficient...
    expresses quantitatively the magnitude and direction of the relationship.
  55. Pearson is a measure of...
    the extent to which paired scores occupy the same or opposite positions within their own distributions.
  56. Pearson Image Upload 20
    Image Upload 21
  57. The least-squares regression line is...
    the prediction line that minimizes the total error of prediction, according to the least-squares criterion of Image Upload 22.
  58. Spearman rho is ...
    used for linear relationships when one or both of the variables are only of ordinal scaling 
  59. the equation for the least-squares regression line for predicting Y given X is ...
    Image Upload 23

    • Image Upload 24predicted or estimated value of Y
    • Image Upload 25slope of the line for minimizing errors in predicting Y
    • Image Upload 26= Y axis intercept for minimizing errors in predicting Y
  60. the Image Upload 27 regression constant is equal to...
    Image Upload 28
  61. the Image Upload 29 regression constant is given by...
    Image Upload 30
Card Set
psyc 218 mid-term 1
behavioral stats