Gender & Sexuality

  1. What is gender?
    The social construction of masculine and feminine identity, roles and status.
  2. What is sex?
    The physical or biological construction (sexual organs) of what constitutes a man and a woman.
  3. The division of labor according to gender is know as..?
    gender division of labor
  4. Labor activities that can potentially bring wealth to an individual or the household are known as what?
    Productive gender roles.
  5. True/False: Productive gender roles are typically associated with women. If false, why?
    False. They are typically associated with men.
  6. Define reproductive gender roles.
    Labor activities that do not bring wealth to the individual or household, but are essential.
  7. True/False: There are historically associated with women (domestic). If false, why?
  8. What is meant by double day?
    The expectation that women will participate in both productive and reproductive work.
  9. Public/Private Dichotomy
  10. The ______(______) is male-centered due to it's concerns with the ______ and _____, while the ______(_________ is female-centered due to it's association with the _____ and it being "__________".
    public(street); political; economic; home(private); apolitical; "non-working"
  11. What men in public spheres do for their women?
    Speak for them.
  12. The unequal distribution of resources, power, prestige & personal freedom of men and women in society is known as gender stratification.
  13. What are gender stereotypes?
    Oversimplified ideas about the supposed inherent characteristics of men and women.
  14. Gender Among Hunters & Gatherers
  15. True/False: The public/private gender dichotomy tends to not be as pronounced as it is in more complex societies. If false, why?
  16. What do relationships between genders tend towards?
  17. Gender Among Horticulturalists
  18. What is matrilineal descent?
    Descent and kinship relationships traced through women.
  19. The husband and wife living with or near the wife's parents is known as _______ _______.
    matrilocal residence
  20. What are women's high statuses associated with in horticultural societies?
    Matrilineal descent and matrilineal residence.
  21. In what areas does this tend to occur? (2 traits)
    • In places where population pressure on strategic natural resources is low.
    • In places where warfare is infrequent.
  22. What are some other traits of these areas? (3 traits)
    • Women frequently control food production and distribution.
    • Female deities exist alongside male deities.
    • Women own land and inherit land.
  23. What leads to an increase in men's status and a decrease in women's status?
    Patrilineal descent and patrilocal residence.
  24. In what areas does this tend to occur? (2 traits)
    • In areas where there is population pressure on resources.
    • In areas where warfare is common.
  25. Public/private spheres have sharp ________.
  26. True/False: Men's activities are deemed more prestigious than women's activities. If false, why?
  27. True/False: Women are often forced to go everywhere with their men. If false, why?
    False. Men's houses are often separated from women's.
  28. How is women's sexuality viewed?
    As harmful to men.
  29. Gender in Agricultural Societies
  30. What has become more common with the advent of agricultural societies?
    Nuclear families.
  31. True/False: As a result, women become closer to their kin. If false, why?
    False. Women become more isolated from their kin.
  32. Why is their an increase in gender stratification and decline in women's status as a result of an increase in plow significance? (2 reasons)
    • Male control over agricultural technology.
    • Male control over credit.
  33. Who came up with that idea?
    Ester Boserup.
  34. Gender & Colonialism in Latin America
  35. In pre-colonial Latin America, men's and women's roles were seen as _________ to one another.
  36. However, Portuguese gender relations in Latin America emphasized a ________ order in which ______ led ______.
    hierarchical; men; women
  37. Define marianismo.
    Pious women were virginal, submissive, and relegated to the home.
  38. Define machismo.
    Fearless, dominan male with unquestioned authority over his women.
  39. Gender in Industrial Societies
  40. Industrial societies have sharp distinctions between ______ and ______ spheres.
    public; private
  41. Traditionally, where were women's place?
    In the home.
  42. What is the barrier limiting women's career advancement called?
    The glass ceiling.
  43. Sexuality
  44. Define sexuality.
    Sexual desires, practices and orientation.
  45. What are the four types of sexual orientations?
    • Heterosexual
    • Homosexual
    • Bisexual
    • Asexual
  46. The belief that heterosexuality is normal and all other sexual orientations are abnormal is known as ________.
  47. What is the range of the Kinsey Scale of Sexual Orientation?
    From exclusively heterosexual (0) to exclusively homosexual (6).
  48. Ritualized Homosexuality: Sambia, New Guinea
  49. What is semen considered? (2 things)
    • Life force
    • Source of male strength
  50. How are women seen?
    As a potential drain on mens' life force.
  51. What were adolescent males expected to do in order to nourish themselves and build their strength and vitality?
    Engage in fellatio with older males.
  52. What does this allow boys to do later in life?
    Engage in healthy sexual relations with women.
  53. Third Genders
  54. What are third genders usually?
    Biological men who are transformed into third genders in adulthood.
  55. What kind of relations are frequently involved with these genders?
    Same-sex relations
  56. What are these genders believed to have?
    Specific spiritual powers.
  57. Two-spirit (Berdache): Indigenous North America
  58. What are two-spirits?
    People who take on culturally defined gender roles of other sex than their own, but are not classified as women and men, but as a third gender.
  59. True/False: Although two-spirits frequently had sexual relations with people of the same biological sex, neither person was considered homosexual. If false, why?
  60. Hijras: India
  61. What are hijras?
    Biological males who through castration become neither men nor women.
  62. True/False: Hijras wear women's clothes, take feminine names, and only have male sexual partners. If false, why?
Card Set
Gender & Sexuality
Final Review