Antibiotics part 1

  1. Sulfonamides Mechanism of Action
    bacteriostatic by inhibiting bacterial synthesis of folic acid
  2. Sulfonamides Indications
    • gram-positive and gram-negative
    • UTI- Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus
    • Pneumocystic jirovecci pneumonia
    • Upper respiratory tract infections
  3. Sulfonamides contraindications
    • allergies to sulfonamides and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib
    • pregnant women and infants younger than 2 mo. 
  4. Sulfonamides Adverse Effects
    • Blood- hemolytic and aplastic anema, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia
    • Allergic- delayed cutaneous reactions
    • Integumentary- photosensitivty, Exfoliative dermatitis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, epidermal necrolysis
    • GI- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pancreatitits
    • Other- convulsions, crystalluria, toxic nephrosis, headache, peripheral neuritis, urticaria 
  5. Sulfonamides Interactions
    • Potentiate hypoglycemic effects in diabetes
    • toxic effects of phenytoin and anticoagulant effects of warfarin
    • may decrease efficacy of oral contraceptives
  6. Penicillins Mechanism of Action
    Bactericidal by inhibiting cell wall synthesis
  7. Penicillins Indications
    Gram-positive bacteria, streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp.
  8. Penicillins Contraindications
    Drug allergies
  9. Penicillins Adverse effects
    • allergic reactions- urticarial, pruritus, angioedema
    • common- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
  10. Penicillins Interactions
    • many drug interactions, some positive and some negative
    • ~NSAIDs, Oral contraceptives, Warfarin, Others
  11. Cephalosporins Mechanism of Action
    bactericidal by interfering with bacterial wall synthesis 
  12. Cephalosporins Indications
    • depends on which generation
    • covers gram-negative to gram-positive
  13. Cephalosporins Contraindications
    allergy to Penicillin
  14. Cephalosporins Adverse Reactions
    mild diarrhea, abdominal cramps, rash, pruritus, redness, edema
  15. Carbapenems Mechanism of action
    Bactericidal by inhibiting cell wall synthesis
  16. Carbapenems Indications
    infection of complicated body cavity and connective tissue infection
  17. Carbapenems Adverse Reaction
    drug-induced seizures
  18. Monobactams Mechanism of Action
    Bactericidal by preventing cell wall synthesize 
  19. Monobactams Indication
    • aerobic gram-negative bacteria 
    • ~E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.
    • moderately sever systemic infections and UTI
  20. Macrolides Mechanism of Action
    Bacteriostatic by inhibiting protein synthesis by reversible binding to 50s ribosomal subunit 
  21. Macrolides Indications
    Strep infections, mild to moderate URI and LRI, Spirochtal infection, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma 
  22. Macrolides Contraindications
    known drug allergies
  23. Macrolides Adverse Effects
    nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatotoxicity, flatulence, jaundice, anorexia 
  24. Macrolides Interactions
    high protein bound and metabolized by the liver
  25. Ketolide Indications
    gram-positive bacteria, including multi-drug-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae
  26. Ketolide adverse effects
    associated with severe liver disease
  27. Tetracyclines Mechanism of Action
    bacteriostatic that inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30s ribosome subunit
  28. Tetracyclines Indications
    gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, protozoa, mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, syphilis, Lyme disease, acne
  29. Tetracycline Contraindications
    drug allergy
  30. Tetracycline Adverse reactions
    • discoloration of permanent teeth and tooth enamel hypoplasia in fetuses, children, and infants
    • possible retard fetal skeletal development
    • photosensitivity
    • alteration in intestinal flora
    • vaginal candidiasis, gastric upset, enterocolitis, maculopapular rash
  31. Tetracycline Interactions
    antacids, antidiarrheal drugs, diary products, calcium, enteral feedings, iron preparations
Card Set
Antibiotics part 1
Pharm test 2