What is microbiology?
- Study of microorganisms that are:
- -single celled,
- -self-replicating (asexual),
- -and microscopic.
Name the 3 types of microorganisms.
- 1. Viruses: obligate intracellular parasites
- 2. Protists: e.g. algae, fungi, yeast, mold
- 3. Bacteria/Prokaryotes
Who coined the term "cell?"
Who is Robert Hooke?
- -first who saw cells (cork &plant)
- -discovered what individual cells were
- -first who saw fungi under compound microscope
Who was the first person to see bacteria, a prokaryotic organism?
Antoni Van Leeuwenhook
What did Louis Pasteur prove & how?
That the spontaneous generation didn't exist. He proved this through the pasteurization process with boiling water, a curved tube, and the p-trap.
Who started the idea of vaccinology?
Who created the vaccine for smallpox and how?
- -found that the cows
- have cowpox and gave milkmaids cowpox; it protected the maids from smallpox
- -took scab off a
- cow, ground it up, put it in the arm of a child; didn’t get sick & die
Describe the 4 levels of biosafety.
Level 1: Safe organisms
- BSL 2: Organisms that we can
- keep control of (E. coli, vaccinia, corona viruses)
- BSL 3: Organisms that will kill
- both animals, food sources & humans. Minimal treatment for these. Wipes out pigs (African swine fever virus).
- Have much more economic and ecological impact.
- BSL 4: Most Dangerous; E. bola, hendra.
- Organisms that there are no treatments for whatsoever. Will quarantine you.
ways of growing organisms on agar media?
What are the 5 components of Koch's postulates?
- 1) disease where all organisms have the
- same symptoms (same bug)
- 2) can isolate the agent in pure
- 3) can infect healthy
- individuals with pure culture of isolates,
4) get identical symptoms,
5) and then reisolate the same microorganism.
Can we prove Koch's postulates with humans? Why or why not?
- With humans, can’t prove Koch’s postulates because of ethical issues, so you'd infect a
- host that would invoke a similar response e.g. chimps.
Who coined the term "chemotherapy" and established the discipline of immunology?
-Worked with microorganisms with sulfur
and nitrogen fixation
-Set the stage for making enrichment
-made media that lacked a nitrogen
-started idea that you can make
agar that allows you to select for particular organisms (selectable media that
can target a microorganism)
-coined the term “virus”
-took infected tobacco plants, ground
them, put them through porcelain filter that holds back bacteria (tobacco
-Beijernick repeated his work and
determined, coined the term “virus”
Name 5 examples of how microorganisms are used.
2. Making food
- 3. Protection, Medicine,
- Bacterial/Microbial Flora (microorganisms growing in your body and are
- beneficial; e.g. for digestion, fighting off other organisms)
- 4. Biotechnology/Molecular Biology
- e.g. plasmids, restriction enzymes, GMO, bioremediation
5. Biological weapons e.g. anthrax
Describe the RNA hypothesis.
- -RNA made from nitrogen (majority) and
-RNA can make proteins
- -other macromolecules were made,
- -organism that contains
- component w/ lipid membrane
- -DNA made! .: Organism with more complex
- structures (DNA WORLD)
What is the difference between the subsurface hypothesis and the surface hypothesis?
- Subsurface Hypothesis:
- -under the water
- -above water