Microbio: Intro

  1. What is microbiology?
    • Study of microorganisms that are:
    • -single celled,
    • -self-replicating (asexual),
    • -and microscopic.
  2. Name the 3 types of microorganisms.
    • 1. Viruses: obligate intracellular parasites
    • 2. Protists: e.g. algae, fungi, yeast, mold
    • 3. Bacteria/Prokaryotes
  3. Who coined the term "cell?"
    Robert Hooke
  4. Who is Robert Hooke?
    • -first who saw cells (cork &plant) 
    • -discovered what individual cells were
    • -first who saw fungi under compound microscope
  5. Who was the first person to see bacteria, a prokaryotic organism?
    Antoni Van Leeuwenhook
  6. What did Louis Pasteur prove & how?
    That the spontaneous generation didn't exist.  He proved this through the pasteurization process with boiling water, a curved tube, and the p-trap.
  7. Who started the idea of vaccinology?
    Louis Pasteur
  8. Who created the vaccine for smallpox and how?
    Edward Jenner; 

    • -found that the cows
    • have cowpox and gave milkmaids cowpox; it protected the maids from smallpox

    • -took scab off a
    • cow, ground it up, put it in the arm of a child; didn’t get sick & die
  9. Describe the 4 levels of biosafety.
    Level 1: Safe organisms

    • BSL 2: Organisms that we can
    • keep control of (E. coli, vaccinia, corona viruses)

    • BSL 3: Organisms that will kill
    • both animals, food sources & humans. Minimal treatment for these.  Wipes out pigs (African swine fever virus).
    • Have much more economic and ecological impact.

    • BSL 4: Most Dangerous; E. bola, hendra.
    • Organisms that there are no treatments for whatsoever.  Will quarantine you. 
  10. Who developed
    ways of growing organisms on agar media?
    Robert Koch
  11. What are the 5 components of Koch's postulates?
    • 1) disease where all organisms have the
    • same symptoms (same bug)

    • 2) can isolate the agent in pure
    • culture,

    • 3) can infect healthy
    • individuals with pure culture of isolates,

    4) get identical symptoms,

    5) and then reisolate the same microorganism.
  12. Can we prove Koch's postulates with humans? Why or why not?
    • With humans, can’t prove Koch’s postulates because of ethical issues, so you'd infect a
    • host that would invoke a similar response e.g. chimps.
  13. Who coined the term "chemotherapy" and established the discipline of immunology?
    Paul Ehrlich
  14. -Worked with microorganisms with sulfur
    and nitrogen fixation

    -Set the stage for making enrichment
    Sergei Winogradsky
  15. -made media that lacked a nitrogen

    -started idea that you can make
    agar that allows you to select for particular organisms (selectable media that
    can target a microorganism)

    -coined the term “virus”
    Martinus Beijernick
  16. -took infected tobacco plants, ground
    them, put them through porcelain filter that holds back bacteria (tobacco
    mosaic virus)

    -Beijernick repeated his work and
    determined, coined the term “virus”
    Dimitri Ivanowski
  17. Name 5 examples of how microorganisms are used.
    1. Disease

    2. Making food

    • 3. Protection, Medicine,
    • Bacterial/Microbial Flora (microorganisms growing in your body and are
    • beneficial; e.g. for digestion, fighting off other organisms)

    • 4. Biotechnology/Molecular Biology
    • e.g. plasmids, restriction enzymes, GMO, bioremediation

    5. Biological weapons e.g. anthrax
  18. Describe the RNA hypothesis.
    • -RNA made from nitrogen (majority) and
    • oxygen

    -RNA can make proteins

    • -other macromolecules were made,
    • mycelles

    • -organism that contains
    • component w/ lipid membrane

    • -DNA made! .: Organism with more complex
    • structures (DNA WORLD)
  19. What is the difference between the subsurface hypothesis and the surface hypothesis?
    • Subsurface Hypothesis:
    • -under the water
    • Surface
    • Hypothesis:
    • -above water
Card Set
Microbio: Intro
Introduction to biology of microorganisms