What parasite kills the most people every year and what are the two commonest ways it kills?
malaria: plasodium (sporozoan or apicomplexa)
- cerebral malaria
- severe anemia
How does malaria evade the immune sytem and how does partial immunity ensue?
- immune system evasion:
- P. falciparum: PfEMPS with antigenic variability
- partial immunity:
- developent of antibodies to multiple PfEMPS (i.e. semi-immune state)
- G6PD deficiency
- sickle cell trait
- lack of Duffy-blood-group FyFy (Western Africa) (only useful against P. falciporum)
What's the most common protozoan infection in the world? How is it acquired and how does it cause disease?
- definitive host = cat
- carriers = lamb/sheep, pig, mouse, (cow)
- (cat) fecal oocysts
- undercooked/raw meat
- miscellaneous: transfusion, transplantation, lab accidents
- sexual cycle occurs in cats and does not occur in humans, only asexual/schizogony cycle happens in humans
- sporogenesis in cat intestine
- pregnant women: transplacental parasitemia infects fetus (esp. severe in 1st trimester)
- tends to affect muscles most --> heart transplants
What parasites require tests usually used for tuberculosis for detection?
- cryptosporidium (acid fast in stool, mycobacterium detection)
- isospora belli
- cyclospora cayetanensis