1. What parasite kills the most people every year and what are the two commonest ways it kills?
    malaria: plasodium (sporozoan or apicomplexa)

    • mortality:
    • cerebral malaria
    • severe anemia
  2. How does malaria evade the immune sytem and how does partial immunity ensue?
    • immune system evasion:
    • P. falciparum: PfEMPS with antigenic variability

    • partial immunity:
    • developent of antibodies to multiple PfEMPS (i.e. semi-immune state)
    • G6PD deficiency
    • sickle cell trait
    • lack of Duffy-blood-group FyFy (Western Africa) (only useful against P. falciporum)
  3. What's the most common protozoan infection in the world? How is it acquired and how does it cause disease?
    • toxoplasmosis
    • definitive host = cat
    • carriers = lamb/sheep, pig, mouse, (cow)

    • transmission:
    • (cat) fecal oocysts
    • undercooked/raw meat
    • miscellaneous: transfusion, transplantation, lab accidents

    • pathology:
    • sexual cycle occurs in cats and does not occur in humans, only asexual/schizogony cycle happens in humans
    • sporogenesis in cat intestine
    • pregnant women: transplacental parasitemia infects fetus (esp. severe in 1st trimester)
    • tends to affect muscles most --> heart transplants
  4. What parasites require tests usually used for tuberculosis for detection?
    • cryptosporidium (acid fast in stool, mycobacterium detection)
    • isospora belli
    • cyclospora cayetanensis
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