Epidemiology Chp.3

  1. What are the seven uses of epi?
    • •To study the history of the health of
    • populations.

    •To diagnose the health of the community.

    •To study the working of health services-operations research.

    • •To estimate the individual risks of disease and other
    • conditions, and the chances of avoiding them.

    •To identify syndromes.

    •To complete the clinical picture of chronic diseases.

    •To search for causes of health and disease.
  2. What is descriptive epi?
    Descriptive: P (person) P (place) T(time)           characteristics
  3. What are analytical epi?
    • Analytical : Identify risk factors of
    • diseases, etiologic study designs used


  4. What is computed in infectious epi?

    –Use Epidemic Curves

    –Calculate attack rates
  5. What is computed in chronic diseases? 
    • –Calculate
    • Risk Ratios (RRs, ORs, PRs)

    • –Calculate
    • Rate Difference (Attributable Risk)
  6. What are the types of epidemiology? 
    • Analytical 
    • Descriptive
    • Infectious 
    • Chronic
    • Observational
    • Experimental 
  7. What is observational epi?
    • Observational:
    • cases and controls determine their own exposure also called Natural Experiment
  8. What is experimental epi? 
    • •researcher
    • determines the exposure (only used for beneficial factors)
  9. What are factors that affect the reliability of observed changes? 
    • •Lack of comparability over time due
    • to altered diagnostic criteria.

    •Aging of the general population.

    • •Changes in the fatal course of the
    • condition.
  10. What are the four trends of disorders? 



    •New epidemic
  11. What are disappearing disorders? 
    • •This category refers to conditions
    • that were once common but are no longer present in epidemic form; an example is
    • smallpox.

    • •Immunizations, improvement in
    • sanitary conditions, and the use of antibiotics and other medications led to
    • eradication of these diseases.
  12. What are residual disorders? 
    • •Conditions
    • for which the key contributing factors are largely known.

    • •Methods
    • of control not implemented effectively.

    • •Examples:
    • STDs, alcohol abuse, tobacco use.
  13. What are persisting disorders?
    • •Diseases
    • for which there is no effective method of prevention or no known cure.

    • •Examples:
    • certain types of cancer and mental disorders.
  14. What are new epidemic disorders?
    • •Diseases
    • that are increasing in frequency.

    • •Examples:
    • HIV, Type 2 diabetes
  15. A. What are factors that affect the size of the population? 

    B. When these factors do not contribute to net increase or decrease it is called _________. 
    • A. Birth
    •     Death
    •      Migration 
    • B. Equilibrium 
  16. List and explain the population terms. 
    Fixed Population: adds no new members and, as a result, decreases in size due to deaths only.

    • Dynamic Population: adds new members through migration and births or loses members through emigration
    • and deaths.
  17. What is this...
    Shift from high birth and death rates found in agrarian societies to lower birth and
    death rates found in developed countries.
    Demographic Transition
  18. What is...
    Shift in the pattern of morbidity and mortality from infectious and communicable
    diseases to chronic, degenerative diseases.
    Epidemiologic Transition
  19. The population is at a steady state when...
    the number of members exiting equals the number entering.
  20. List at least 5 demographic and social variables. 
    • age and sex distribution
    • Socioeconomic status
    • family structure
    • racial, ethnic and religious composition 
  21. List 5 variables related to community infrastructure. 
    •Availability of social and health services

    •Quality of housing stock

    •Social stability (residential mobility)

    –Community policing

    –Employment opportunities
  22. How are risk factors defined? 
    Exposure associated with disease. 
  23. What are the three criteria for risk factors? 
    • –The frequency of the disease varies by category or value of the factor, e.g., light
    • smokers vs. heavy smokers.

    –The risk factor precedes onset of the disease.

    –The observation must not be due to error.
  24. What are the five criteria for causality 1964 Surgeon General?
    –Strength of association

    –Time sequence

    –Consistency upon repetition


    –Coherence of explanation
  25. Austin Bradford Hill expanded list of criteria to:
    –Biologic gradient



  26. _______ suggested that disease might be associated with the environment and created the miasma theory of disease. 
    Hippocrates in 400BC
  27. _______ occurred in 1346 - 1352 and claimed one quarter to one-third of population of Europe
    The Black Death
  28. Who is: 
    •Recorded seasonal variations in births and deaths.

    •Showed excess male over female differences in mortality, by age, urban/rural.

    •Known as the “Columbus”  of biostatistics.
    John Graunt
  29. Who developed a method for smallpox vaccination? 
    Edward Jenner
  30. Who used natural experiments and investigated a cholera outbreak that occurred during the mid-19th century on Broad Street, Golden Square London. 
    John Snow
  31. _______ linked cholera epidemic to contaminated water supplies. 
    John Snow
  32. Who? 
    •Recorded seasonal variations in births and deaths.

    •Showed excess male over female differences in mortality, by age, urban/rural.

    •Known as the “Columbus”  of biostatistics.
    William Farr
  33. What are Koch's Postulates? 
    Microorganism must be observed in every case of the disease.

    •Microorganism must be isolated and grown in pure culture.

    •Pure culture must, when inoculated into a susceptible animal, reproduce the disease.

    • •Microorganism
    • must be observed in, and recovered from, diseased animal. 
  34. _______established CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service.
    Alexander Langmuir
  35. ________was the first professor of epidemiology in the U.S.
    Wade Hampton Frost 
  36. _______discovered the cure for pellagra.
    Joseph Goldberger 
  37. ________found relationship between handwashing and childbed or peurperal fever
    Ignas Semmelweis
  38. ______found cure for scurvy
    James Lind
Card Set
Epidemiology Chp.3
These cards cover the historical perspective of Epi