Developmental Biology Exam 1

  1. Developmental biology
    Study of progressive changes of cells and tissues
  2. Embryo
    Stages from fertilization to hatching (birth)
  3. Larva
    Stages between embryo and sexual maturity
  4. Vertebrate models for studies
    • Xenopus laevis
    • Gallus gallus
    • Mus musculus
    • Danio rerio
  5. Invertebrate models
    • Drosophila melanogaster
    • Caenorhabditis elegans
  6. Preformation
    Idea that a completely formed organism grows larger during embryogenesis
  7. Homunculus
    Tiny human believed to be in the head of each human sperm by preformationists
  8. Epigenesis
    Idea that organs and structures are formed in stages during embryogenesis
  9. Cell theory
    • States that cells are the basic unit of life
    • 1. All organisms are made of cells
    • 2. Cells arise from other cells
  10. Germ cells
    Produce gametes
  11. Gametes
    • Eggs and sperms
    • Haploid cells formed by meiosis
  12. Somatic cells
    Diploid cells which divide by mitosis
  13. Mutations
    Alter DNA sequences and may alter cell phenotype
  14. Fertilization
    Haploid gametes and their DNA join to form a diploid zygote
  15. Zygote
    One-cell embryo, or fertilized egg
  16. Differentiation
    Cellular specialization
  17. Early embryo cells
    • Relatively generic
    • Pluripotent
  18. Differential gene expression
    Different genes are expressed at different times
  19. Animal pole
    • The top of an amphibian embryo
    • (Limbs, head, etc.)
  20. Vegetal pole
    • The bottom of an amphibian embryo
    • Contains large, heavy yolk particles (lipids)
    • (usually turns into the guts)
  21. Cytoplasmic determinants
    • Some embryos have distinctive regions of cytoplasm
    • E.g. Tunicates have myoplasm
  22. Myoplasm
    Region of cytoplasm that give rise to muscle cells in tunicates
  23. Mosaic development
    • Determinants in the egg are divided into different cells, directing different fates
    • Cell-autonomous
  24. Cell-autonomous
    Inherent ability or fate in a cell (due to a determinant)
  25. Regulative development
    • Cells sense their relative positions and differentiate based on external cues
    • non-cell-autonomous
    • This is usually observed
Card Set
Developmental Biology Exam 1
Study guide for exam 1 of developmental biology course