Stuttering Test Marshall

  1. Who studied cerebral dominance
    Lee Travis
  2. What is the cerebral dominance theory?
    PWS were left handed
  3. What did Robert West do?
    Believed stuttering dealt with genetics and lead to early genetic research in stuttering.
  4. What study shows the risk of having a son/daughter that stutters based on the sex of the parent that stutters?
  5. Those that recover from stuttering typically have one of these 5 characterisitcs:
    • - No relatives that stutter
    • -Early onset
    • -Female
    • -Right handed
    • -Score higher on tests
  6. If child copies stuttering from another child
  7. When does stuttering typically develop?
    Between ages 2-5
  8. What is the resource allocation model?
    • The brain can only do so many tasks at
    • once.  If it does more than one, it will run slower and less efficiently
  9. What is anticipatory struggle?
    • Bloodstein- a child decides it is something that requires extra effort and struggle. Once this decision is made, the child anticipates
    • having difficulty and struggles
  10. Johnsons theories
    The parents diagnosed/misdiagnosed children with stuttering and there is no actually difference in CWS and CWOS (stuttering is a learned behavior)
  11. Who points out that parents of CWS are "sensetive"
  12. How has the theory of stuttering evolved
    • Van Riper first talked about stuttering
    • as a disorder of “timing” and Kent picked up on the theme and advanced it.  Neilson found that stuttering individuals
    • have trouble learning the sensory-to-motor and motor-to-sensory movements
    • needed for speech
  13. Who believes the voice has an integral role
    in stuttering?
  14. Where PWS perform inferior to PWOS
    • -Reaction time
    • -Sensory auditory processing
  15. How are the levels of RH and LH in a PET in PWS compared to PWOS
    PWS shows more RH on PET and less LH than PWOS
  16. What are Guitar's two points for what the cause of stuttering is?
    • 1. genetic or neurologically amiss
    • 2. an inherited temperament for tolerance of stress, being anxious, and reactions to
    • situations.
  17. Borderline Stuttering Stage
    • -Begins between 2-5 y/o
    • -Minimal awareness of speech
    • -No tension in blocks
    • -variable fluent speech
  18. Beginning stuttering stage
    • -Child is school age
    • -Child is aware of problem
    • -May have some tension in blocks
    • -Do not have negative communication feelings yet
  19. Intermediate and advanced stages of stuttering
    • -Interferes with day-to-day
    • -Attitudes overt and covert about speaking have developed
    • -Much time spent avoiding, and adjusting speech for stuttering.
  20. What are the five parts of assessment
    • -address areas of concern (referrals)
    • -case history
    • -interview
    • -talk about stuttering
    • -obtain a speech sample
  21. Referral process for borderline or beginning stuttering
    Referred by the parent or teacher
  22. Referral process for intermediate and advanced stuttering
    Have been in treatment and have been stuttering for a while. (self referred)
  23. Obtaining history of borderline and beginning stuttering
    Obtained by parents before treatment session  (speech and language development, medical/health history, social history, temperment)
  24. Obtaining history for intermediate and advanced stuttering
    Obtain information from the client directly, and find out how stuttering affects the clients life
  25. Interview for borderline and beginning stuttering
    Parents are seen first, parental permission needed to interview child, teacher may be interviewed as well.
  26. Interview for intermediate and advanced stuttering
    Talk to the client about stuttering directly
  27. What is the process for obtaining a speech sample from those with borderline and beginning stuttering
    Obtain tape from parent, play situation, view interaction in waiting room
  28. What is the process for obtaining a speech sample from those with intermediate and advanced stuttering?
    Job description, picture description, reading
  29. What 4 things do you measure with stutterers
    • -Amount of disfluency
    • -Type of disfluency
    • -Duration of blockages
    • -Physical concomitants
  30. Measuring the amount of disfluency (3 steps)
    • -Transcribe sample
    • -Make mark at beginning and end of utterance
    • -Check for accuracy
  31. Measurement of amount of disfluency (3 step)
    • -Time length of sample (their speech only) 2x
    • -Count syllables or words produced
    • -Divide # of syllables by total time
  32. How many syllables do normal speakers produce per minute?
  33. How many syllables to normal children from ages 6-12 produce per minute?
  34. How do you measure percent of stuttered syllables?
    # of syllables stuttered/total syllables
  35. What does % syllables stuttered not take into acount
  36. Stuttering like dysfluencies
    • -Part word repetitions
    • -Repetitions of one syllable words
    • -Prolongations
    • -Blocks
    • -Broken words
  37. Non- stuttering like dysfluencies
  38. -Interjections
    • -Revisions or abandoned utterances
    • -Multisyllabic phrase repetitions
  39. What are the treatment goals for borderline and beginning stuttering?
    • -Spontaneous fluency
    • -No stuttering
    • -No conscious effort in stuttering
  40. What are the treatment goals for intermediate and advanced stuttering?
    • -Controlled fluency
    • -Easy stuttering
    • -Improved attitude toward communication
  41. What is stuttering modification
    • -Change feelings/attitudes
    • -Minimal data collection
    • -Non-behavioral
    • -Techniques to regain control of stutter
  42. What is fluency shaping
    • -Little emphasis on feelings
    • -Heavy data collection
    • -Behavior modification
    • -Techniques to eliminate stuttering
  43. Indirect approaches to borderline stuttering
    Do not talk directly about stuttering, and may  not work with child (works with parents, environment, etc)
  44. Direct approaches to borderline stuttering
    Non-programmed behavioral approach addressing disfluencies, teaching control of speech musculature
  45. Monitoring
    • -watch and see approach
    • -used w/ child who has been stuttering a year or less (no add'l speech problems)
    • -recordings should be made monthly and analyzed to see if changes are
    • being made in the right direction.
  46. Zembrowski Plan A
    Basically indirect approach
  47. Zembroqski plan B
    PLan A + direct approach (directly treat child) if there is a family history of stuttering
  48. Signs that an indirect approach is not working
    • -no reduction of disfluencies
    • -increase awareness of stuttering to child
    • -increased tension and struggle on childs part
    • -increased parental concern
  49. Stoker Probe
    • question asking hierarchy (5 levels)
    • -clock
    • -simple wh
    • -difficult wh
    • -tell me everything you know about _____
    • -tell me a story about this
  50. Behavioral treatment of stuttering
    requires clinicians who do what two things
    • 1. understand the concepts of how to eliminate stuttered speech
    • 2. use these concepts flexibly and creatively to formulate clinical procedures.
  51. operants
    responses that can be controlled by the consequences that follow them
  52. Reinforcement
    • a consequence that results in an increase
    • in the frequency of the desired behavior
  53. Positive reinforcement
    • Presentation of a positive stimulus
    • contingent on occurrence of desired behavior
  54. Negative reinforcement
    • Removal of an aversive stimulus
    • after occurrence of the desired behavior
  55. What is "oops, that was a bumpy word" an example of?
  56. What are the four treatment targets
    • 1. Stutter free speech
    • 2. Self-monitoring
    • 3. Self-evaluation
    • 4. Compliance
  57. Acquisition
    reduction of stuttering in the clinic
  58. Generalization
    reduction in stuttering in situations outside the clinic (particularly social settings)
  59. Social validation
    verification of reduced stuttering by an independent observer in an outside situation
  60. Maintenance
    Continued reduction of stuttering even after treatment has ended
  61. Non programmed behavioral treatment
    • -operant procedures but in no set order
    • -start with speaking approprite to child then progress on
    • -Lidcome
  62. Programmed behavioral treatment
    • -use operant in small systematic steps
    • -Child must make certain amount of progress before moving onto the next step
    • -GILCU and ELU
  63. Lindcome Program
    • Goal: stutter free speech by eliminating stuttering and increasing the length of the speech intervals not containing stuttering 
    • In convo parent asks child to repeat phrases stuttered, and reinforces non-stuttered words
  64. GILCU
    • Gradual Increase in Length and Complexity of Utterance
    • 54 steps from reading to monologue
    • Fluency shaping
    • older children
  65. ELU
    • Extended Length of Utterance
    • 20 graduate steps
    • No imitative utterances
    • Reinforce fluent speech
    • Time out for stutter
    • Criterion to move from step to step
  66. FRP
    • Fluency Rules Program
    • Fluency shaping
    • Universal, primary, secondary rules
    • Reminded of rules by hand signals
    • Made into pleasurable activity for child
  67. Taught to all children, focus on slowing speech rate, 1 word at a time,
    Universal Rules
  68. speech breathing, mr voice box running smoothly, and speech helpers (let your lips touch like a butterfly) are examples of what
    Primary rules
  69. This method uses only the speech helpers and show that the secondary behaviors have nothing to do with talking
    secondary rules
  70. How is FRP implemented?
    Use gestures and old ears/happy ears
  71. stuttering modification
    • easy stutters
    • shows how to alter tense moments
  72. identification
    Describe what speech is like objectively
Card Set
Stuttering Test Marshall