CH 5 patho exam 1

  1. The bases of DNA always bind ____ with ____ & ___ with ____ in _____ _____ bonds that are specific and complementary.
    cytosine & guanine & adenine & tyrosine

    concovalent hydrogen bonds
  2. DNA replication process?
    2 strands are separated by initiator proteins -> DNA polymerase binds single strands of DNA & begins forming new complementary strand of DNA
  3. What will occur if DNA replication results in an error that is not corrected?
    it will be passed to the next generation
  4. Function of genes?
    directs synthesis of protein and some others
  5. Difference b/t RNA & DNA?
    sugar molecule is ribose and there is only one strand and has uracil instead of thymine
  6. Transcription?
    process where mRNA is synthesized from a single-stranded DNA template
  7. Transcription process?
    similar to DNA replication except thymine is replaced with uracil
  8. Introns and exons?
    introns - part of the gene that is not transcribed into the final mRNA

    exons - part that is
  9. Translation?
    process whereby messenger RNA is used to direct the synthesis of a protein
  10. Process of translation?
    mRNA codons are read -> ribosomes bind tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons and catalyze formation of peptize bonds b/t incoming aa's
  11. 6 ways proteins made by a cell can be controlled?
    • 1. regulating rate and timing of gene transcription
    • 2. controlling way mRNA is splcied
    • 3. selecting mRNA that are transported to cytoplasm
    • 4. selecting mRNA that are translated by ribosomes
    • 5. selctively destroying cerain mRNA in cytoplasm
    • 6. selectively controlling activity of the proteins after they have been produced
  12. How do gene regulatory proteins control gene transcription?
    bind near promoter sequence of DNA where the RNA polymerase must attach to initiate transcription of the gene; can be either activators or repressors of transcription
  13. What causes cell differentiation?

    How are cells of the body different?
    differentiating influences experienced in the embryo

    all have same genes but expression of few tissue-specific genes cause differences in diff cells
  14. heterochromatin?
    region of DNA so condensed it cannot be trascribed
  15. 4 essential processes that enable single cell to develop into a person/
    • 1. cell proliferation
    • 2. cell specialization
    • 3. cell to cell interactions
    • 4. cell movement and migration
  16. 2 classes of proteins important for multicellular development?
    • transmembrane proteins that participate in cell adhesion and comm
    • 2. DNA - binding proteins that regulate gene transcription
  17. How does the single cell differentiate?
    cells differentiate based on signals in their area and subsequent daughter cells of these retain the changes made and so on
  18. Integrins?
    transmembrane proteins that tie the cell's cuytoskeleton to particular matrix structures and and allow EC matrix to comm across plasma membrane and activate IC processes
  19. 4 major tissue types?
    epi, muscle, nerve, and connective
  20. Where is simple epithelium found?
    in areas where absorption is a function:  blood vessesl, alveoli, thyroid, sweat, salivary glands, kidney tubules, lining of intestine, glandular ducts
  21. Where is pseudostratified epi found?
    in resp tract
Card Set
CH 5 patho exam 1
Genome Structure, Regulation, and Tissue Differentiation