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  1. Religion and the Churches: The music of __and the __ and __ churches of Southern Germany and Austria show that __ was increasing as life became __and men of reason __. Still, many were still Christian who believed faith was necessary to society. 
    • Bach
    • pilgrimage and monastic
    • anti-religion
    • secularized
    • attacked churches
  2. I.                   The Institutional Church
    18th century
    • a.      18th : established Catholic and Protestant churches= conservative institutions that upheld society’s hierarchical structure, privileged classes, and traditions
    •                                                               i.      Churches experienced change because of new state policies, but not dramatic internal changes
  3. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Both Catholic and Protestant
    •                                                               i.      Both Catholic and Protestant run by priest or pastor and parish church at center of religious practice
    • 1.      Kept records of births, deaths, and marriages; gave charity; supervised primary education; cared for orphans
  4. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Church-state relations
    •                                                               i.      Protestant Reformation solved problem of relationship between church and state by establishing principle of state control over churches
    • 1.      18th: Protestnat state churches all over Europe and minorities
    • a.      Luteranism: Scandinvaia nd n. German states
    • b.      Anglicanism: Engalnd
    • c.       Calvinsim: Scotland, United Provinces, some of swiss Cantons and German states
  5. I.                   The Institutional Church
    • 1.      1700: Catholic church exercised power Catholic European states: Spain, Portugal, France, Itlay, the Habsburg Empire, Poland, and most of s. Germany
    • a.      Church also ery wealthy
  6. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Catholic church
    •                                                               i.      Catholic church= hierarchy
    • 1.      Highest clerics (bishops, archbishops, abbots, abbesses): upper class, especially landed nobility, and receive enormous revenue from their landed estates and tithes from the faithful
    • a.      Wide gulf between upper and lower clergy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Bishop: 100, 000 livres yearly (France)
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Priest: 500
  7. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Governments in 18th
    • 1.      18th: governments of many Catholic states began to seek greater authority over churches in their countries
    • a.      This “nationalization” of the Catholic church meant controlling the papacy an dthe chief papal agnents, the Jesuits
  8. I.                   The Institutional Church
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Jesuits: successfulà created special enclaves (states within states) all over and were advisers to Catholic rulers, giving them political influces
    • 1.      High profileà enemies and actions to undermine their power
  9. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Portuguese monarch
    • a.      Portuguese monarch destroyed the Jesuit state inParaguay and then expelled them from Portugal, confiscating their property
    • b.      1764, they were expelled from France and three years later from Spain and Spanish colonies
  10. I.                   The Institutional Church
    • a.      1773: when Spain and France demanded that the entire society be dissolved, Pope Clement XIV complied
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Dissolution of the Jesuit order, one pillar of Catholic strength, was another victory for Catholic governments determined to win control voer their churches
  11. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Jesuit end
    • 1.      End of Jesuits paralleled by decline in papal power
    • a.      Papacy played minor role in diplomacy and international affairs
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      The nationalization of the churches by the states meant loss of the papacy’s power to appoint high clerical officials
  12. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Toleration and Religious Minorities
    •                                                               i.      Philosophes wanted religious toleration for political necessityà tolerance of different creeds occurred
    • 1.      Louis XIV insisted on religious uniformity and suppressing the rights of the Huguenots
    • 2.      Many rulers continued to believe one path to salvation
    • a.      True duty of ruler to not to let subjects to go to hell by being hereticsà persecutrion of hereticsà last one (1781)
  13. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Some progress
    •                                                               i.      Some progress made
    • 1.      No ruler more interested in philosophes’ call for religious toleration than Joseph II of Austria
    • a.      Toleration Patent of 1781, while recognizing Catholicism’s public practice, granted Lutherans, Clavinists, and Greek Orthodox the right to worship privately= all subjects equal
  14. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Toleration and the Jews
    •                                                               i.      Remained despised; largest number in e. Europe (Ashkenazic)
    • 1.      Except in tolerant Poland, Jews were restricted in movements, forbidden to own land or hold jobs, forced to pay heavy special taxses, and subject to periodic outbursts of popular wrath
    • a.      The resulting pogroms (communities looted and massacred) made them dependent on favor of territorial rulers
  15. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Sephardic Jews
    •                                                               i.      Sephardic Jews (expelled from Spain in 15th)
    • 1.      Many migrated to Turkish lands, some in cities, like Amsterdam and Venice, wehere they were free to participate in banking and commercial activities that were practiced since middle ages 
  16. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Successful Sephardic Jews
    • a.      Successful ones provided valuable service to rulers (court Jews)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Even they were insecure because religion set them apart from Crhistian majority and led to social resentment
  17. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Some Enlightenment thinkers
    •                                                               i.      Some enlightment thinkiers in 18th century favored new acceptance of Jews
    • 1.      Argued that Jews and Muslims ere human with full rights of citizenship despite their religion
    • a.      Renounced their persecution but did not hide their hostility and ridiculed their customs 
  18. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Europeans and Assimilation
    •                                                               i.      Many Europeans favored assimilation of Jews into mainstream of societ,y but only by the conversion of Jews to Christianity sa basic solution to the “Jewish problem”
    • 1.      Not acceptable to Jews
  19. I.                   The Institutional Church
    Austrian emperor Joseph II
    •                                                               i.      Austrian emperor Joseph II tried to adopt new policy toward Jews, but it was limited
    • 1.      Freed Jews from nuisance taxes and allowed more freedom of movement and job opportunities, but still restricted from owning ladn and worshiping in public
    • 2.      At the same time, he encouraged Jews to learn German and work toward greater assimilation into Autsrian society 
Card Set
The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment
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