1. I.                   The World of Medicine
    • a.      Medicine practiced by hierarchy of practitioners
    •                                                               i.      Physicians: university graduates with high social status
    • 1.      Despite scientists advances, university medical education still in Latin and based on Galen’s work
  2. I.                   The World of Medicine
    New Methods
    • 1.      New methods emphasizing experience were introduced  at ULeiden, replacing Padua as foremost European medical school and surpassed by Vienna
    • a.      Graduates with doctorates in medicine must get license before practicing
  3. I.                   The World of Medicine
    England: Royal College of Physicians
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Englahd: Royal College of Physicians licensed only 100 physicians
    • 1.      Licensed physicians were the only ones who could hold regular medical consultations with patients and receive pay
  4. I.                   The World of Medicine
    •                                                               i.      Surgeons (barber-surgeons)
    • 1.      Bleed patients; perform surgery (w/o painkillers and w/ filth due to no understanding of anesthesia or infection)
    • a.      Surgeon underwent changes as they were separate from barbers and organized their own guilds, underwent training by dissections and studying anatomy more systematically
  5. I.                   The World of Medicine
    Surgeons and physicians
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Surgeons and physicians no longer distinct
    • 1.      Surgeons licensed
    • a.      England: Royal College of Surgeons required clinical experience before getting license
  6. I.                   The World of Medicine
    Other medical practitioners
    •                                                               i.      Other medical practitioners (apothecaries, midwives, faith healers)
    • 1.      Served commoners and provided herbs, potions as recommended by physicians,, but also acted independently
    • a.      18th: male doctors inclreasingly supplanted midwives in delivering babies and the tradition of faith healing continued to be practiced
  7. I.                   The World of Medicine
    • a.      Hospitals were a problem rather than aid due to bad conditions
    • Ineffective hospital reform
Card Set
The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment