week 2

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  1. Achlorhydria
    Absence of hydrocloric acid from gastric juice
  2. Anastomosis
    Natural communication, direct or indirect, between two blood vessels other tubular structures
  3. Anticholinergics 521
    Nasal spray, blocks hyper secretory effects by competing for binding sites on the cell. reduces rhinorrhea (persistent mucous discharge from the nose) in the common cold and non allergic rhinitis
  4. Atresia
    Congenital absense of a normal opening or normally patent lumen
  5. Barium 911
    Metallic alkaline, divalent earth element, salts are used in Dx
  6. Biliary colic 1096

    Bile  pain 
    When stone moved/stuck in duct, spams may occur, produces severe pain
  7. Cholangiogram 906
    Radiographic record of the bile ducts obtained by cholangiography
  8. Cholecystectomy 906
    Removal of gallbladder
  9. Choledocholithotomy 902
    Opening into common bile duct for removal of stones
  10. Chyme
    Food mixed with gas truc secretions
  11. Distention
    Act or state of being distended or stretched
  12. Diverticulum 979
    Sac-like outpunching of one or more layers
  13. Dyspepsia 912
    Burning or indigestion
  14. Dysphagia 912
    Difficult to swallow, sensation of food sticking in esophagus
  15. EGD
  16. Emesis
  17. Endoscopy 914
    Direct visualization of body structure thru lighted fiber optic instrument, can examine esophagus, stomach, duodenum, & colon
  18. Enteral 931
    Tube feeding
  19. Epigastric
    Relating to epigastrium (upper middle region of the abdomen)
  20. ERCP
    Endoscopic Retrograde CholangioPancreatography
  21. Erosion
    Wearing away
  22. Esophagitis 976
    Inflammation of the esophagus
  23. Flatulence 1018
    Farts, from gas
  24. Fundoplasty
    Related to fundus
  25. Gastrectomy 906
    Removal of the stomach
  26. Gastritis 985
    Inflammation of the gastric mucosa, can be acute/chronic, may be diffused or localized
  27. Gastroenteritis 1022
    Inflammation of the mucous membrane of both stomach & intestine
  28. Gastrostomy Tube 906
    May be used for patients who requires enteral nutrion over an extended time
  29. Hematemesis
    Vomiting blood
  30. Hemigastrectomy
    Excision of the distal hlaf of the stomach
  31. Herniorrhaphy 906
    Removal of hernia
  32. Intractable
    Difficult to alleviate, remedy
  33. Jejunostomy Tube 931
    • For chronic reflux, tube with continuous feedings may be necessary to reduce the
    • risk of aspiration
  34. LES – Lower Esophageal Sphincter  900
    Distal end of the esophagus
  35. Mallory-Weiss Tear 964
    Disruption of the mucosal lining near the esophageal-gastric junction
  36. Melena 912
    Abnormal black, tarry stool containing digested blood
  37. Odynophagia  912
    Painful swallowing
  38. Orthostatic changes  720
    r/t an erect posture/position
  39. Paralytic ileus 1031
    Lack of intestinal peristalsis & the presence of no bowel sounds
  40. Parenteral  935
    Parenteral nutrition refers to admin of nutrients by a route other than the GI tract (eg. Bloodstream)
  41. Peptic ulcer  987
    • Disease (PUD) condition characterized by erosion of the GI mucosa resulting from the
    • digestive action of HCl acid & pepsin
  42. Perforation
    Abnormal opening in a hollow organ or viscous
  43. Peritonitis  1021
    Results from localized or generalized inflammatory process of the peritoneum. Causes table 43-12
  44. Pyloroplasty  906
    Enlargement & repair of pyloric sphincter area
  45. Pyrosis
    • A burning feeling from stomach/esophagus, sometimes a belching of acid fluid,
    • heartburn
  46. steatorrhea
    Overeaction of sebacous (oil) gland, excessive fat in feces
  47. stomatitis
    Inflammation of the mouth
  48. borborygmi  912
    waves of loud, gurgling sounds
  49. carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)  267
    found on surface of cancer cells derived from GI tract & from normal cells from fetal guit, liver, & pancreas, normally disappear last 3 months of fetal life
  50. capsule endoscopy 915
    • pt swalloes a capsule with camera (size of a large vitamin) which provide endoscopic evaluation of GI tract, used to visualize small intestine & diagnose disease, malabsorption syndrome & to identify sources of possible GI bleeding in areas not accessible by upper endoscopy or colonscopy
    • nursing responsibility: similar to colonscopy, the capsule is swallowed then pt kept NPO 4-6 hr later, comfortable for most pts. after 8hrs of swallowing, pt returns to have the device removed
  51. colonscopy 915
    directly visualize entire colon up to ileocecal valve with flexible fiberoptic scope. pt's position changed frequently during procedure to assist with advancement of cope to cecum, used to diagnose/detect inflammatory bowel disease, polyps, tumors & diverticulous & dilate strictures, allows for biopsy & removal of polyps w/o laparotomy
  52. colectomy  906
    removal of the colon
  53. ileostomy 906
    opening into ileum
  54. sigmoidoscopy 915
    • directly visualize rectum & sigmoid colon with lighted flexible endoscope, sometimes special table is used to tilt pt into knee-chest position, used to detect tumors, polyps, inflammatory & infectious disease, fissures, hemorrhoids
    • nursing responsibilities: administer enemas evening before & morning of the procedure. may have clear liquid or no dietary restriction, explain knee-chest position, need to take deep breath during insertion of the scope & possible urge to defecate as scopes is passed, relax & let abdomen go limp, observe for rectal bleeding  after polypectomy / biopsy
  55. celiac disease 1049
    an autoimmune disease characterized by damage to the small intestinal mucosa from the ingestion of wheat, barley & rye in genetically susceptible individuals
  56. crohn's disease 1022
     Crohn’s disease belongs to a group of conditions known as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.
  57. diversion
    urinary diversion: surgical creation of an alternate route for urine flow to replace an absent or diseased portion of the lower urinary tract in order to preserve renal function.
  58. diverticulitis
    Inflammation of a diverticulum, especially of the small pockets in the wall of the colon that fill with stagnant fecal material and become inflamed.
  59. ileitis
    inflammation of ileum
  60. effluent
    something that flows out, especially a discharge that carries waste products.
  61. enterostomal therapist (ET)
    provides ostomy patients with education and counseling before the operation. After surgery, the ET helps the patient learn to take care of the stoma and appliance, and offers long-term emotional support.
  62. fecalith 1020
    a hard, impacted mass of feces in the colon. To allow evacuation, an oil retention enema is usually administered. If it is ineffective, manual removal can be performed
  63. fistula 195
    an abnormal passage between organs or a hollow organ & skin (abdominal or perianal fistula)
  64. ilepanal anastomosis
    a surgical procedure in which the colon and rectum are removed but the anus and anal sphincter are left intact. An anastomosis is formed between the lower end of the small intestine and the anus. The operation is an alternative to proctocolectomy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
  65. ileus
    a partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine
  66. malabsorption
    a partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine
  67. melena
     abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
  68. obstruction
    The blocking of a body passage, as by clogging or stricture.
  69. ostomy
    A surgical procedure creating an opening in the body for the discharge of body wastes.
  70. peristomal
    pertaining to the area of skin surrounding a stoma in the abdominal wall.
  71. peritonitis 1021
    result from a localized/generalized inflammatory process of peritoneum
  72. perforation
    a hole or opening made through the entire thickness of a membrane or other tissue or material.
  73. polyp
    a small tumorlike growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface
  74. proximal
    in opposite of distal
  75. SBO Small Bowel Obstruction
    An obstruction of the small intestine that prevents the free passage of material; sometimes caused by postoperative adhesions.
  76. stoma
    an artificial opening of an internal organ on the surface of the body created surgically, such as for a colostomy, ileostomy, or tracheostomy
  77. strangulated hernia
    •  incarcerated hernia so tightly constricted as to compromise the blood supply of the hernial sac, leading to gangrene of the sac and its contents.
    • incarcerated hernia  a hernia so occluded that it cannot be returned by manipulation; it may or may not be strangulated.
  78. ulcerative colitis
    a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes swelling, ulcerations, and loss of function of the large intestine.
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week 2
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