Private Pilot

  1. What air pressure does the air speed indicator use?
    Both pitot (RAM) and static
  2. How does the air speed indicator work?
    It determines the airspeed through the air by comparing the RAM (Pitot) pressue vs. the static pressure.

    The greater the difference, the greater the speed.
  3. Performance airspeeds are
    always the same indicated airspeed regardless of the altitude.
  4. What are the types of airspeed?
    • Indicated
    • Calibrated
    • True
    • Ground speed
  5. Define Indicated airspeed, (IAS).
    It is the reading from the indicator.

    It does not reflect variation in air density.

    It is uncorrected for position.
  6. Define Calibrated airspeed, (CAS)
    It is the indicated airspee corrected for position and instuments using the POH chart.
  7. Define True airspeed, (TAS)
    It is the true speed through air.

    It is Calibrated airspeed corrected for altitude and temperature.
  8. The altimeter works by...
    sensing pressure changes. It displays the altitude in feet.
  9. Describe the 3 hands of an altimeter
    • Longest = feet in hundreds
    • Middle = feet in thousands
    • Shortest = feet in 10,000's
  10. The altimeter is affected by ...
    air pressure.
  11. The ________ has to be adjust on the altimeter as you from from one region to another.
  12. On an altimeter 0.01mm of Hg =
    10 feet of change in altitude.
  13. The altimeter measures
    the vertical elevation above a reference point.

    Surface o the earth = mean sea level
  14. What are the types of altitudes?
    • Indicated
    • Pressure
    • Density
    • True
    • Calibrated
    • Absolute
  15. Define Indicated Altitude
    altitude measured by the altimeter
  16. Define Pressure Altitude
    Height above the standard datum plane when the barameter is set to 29.92.

    Standard datum plane = the theoretical pressure line where atmospheric pressure = 29.92.
  17. Define Density Altitude
    Density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature.

    Density altitude increases as abient temperature increases.

    Standard temp. = 15oC (59oF)
  18. Define Calibrated Altitude
    Calibrated ALtitude is Indicated Altitue corrected for instrument error.
  19. Define True Altitude
    Actual height of an object above mean see level.

    FAA: True Altitude is the actual vertical distance bove mean sea level and is = to pressure altitude when standard atmospheric conditions exist.
  20. True altitude is =___________ under standard atmospheric conditions.
    Pressure Altitude and Indicated altitude
  21. True Altitude =____________ when the altimeter is set to the local pressure setting.
    fiels elevation
  22. Define Absolute Altitude
    Absolute altitude is the vertical distance above the surfce.

    also called above ground level
  23. Altimeter memory aids
    - fly from high to low without resetting the altimeter the altimeter will indicate higher than actual(true) altitude.

    - fly low to high the altimeter will show lower than the actual (true) altitude.
  24. A 1 inch change in the altimeter setting =
    1000 feet of indicated altitude change in the same direction.
  25. Remember:

    When flying from high to low, look out below.
  26. Temperature effects on altitude
    - When temperature is higher then standard, pressure levels are raised.  True altitude is higher then indicated.

    -When temperatures are colder then stndard, pressure levels are lowered.  Tre altitude is lower the indicated altitude.
  27. How doess the vertical speed indicator work?
    The vertical speed indicator uses static pressure to display a rate of climb/or descent in feet/minute.

    It measures how fast the ambient air pressure is increasing or decreasing.
  28. What flight instument is affected if the pitot tube is blocked?
    airspeed indicator
  29. What instruments are affected if the static port is clogged?
    • air speed indicator
    • altimeter
    • vertical speed indicator
  30. What are the gyroscopic instruments?
    • turn coordinator
    • attitude indicator
    • heding indicator
  31. What is (are) the magnetic flight instrument(s)
    Magnetic compass
  32. Engine temperature may be reduced by
    • Reducing the rate of climb
    • enriching the fuel mixture
    • Increasing the airspeed
    • Reducing power
  33. Pitot Static instruments use air pressure differences to measure ....
    speed and altitude
  34. Pitot  pressure is also called...
    Impact or ram pressure
  35. Class A Airspace
    • NO VFR
    • Pilot certification;IFR
    • Entry:IFR flight plan & clearence
    • ATC: all aircraft seperation
    • Floor 18,000 feet
    • Ceiling:FL600
    • Jet Routes:18,000 to FL450
  36. Class B
    • VFR minimums:3sm B500 A1000 H2000
    • Pilot Certification:private pilot, student certificate endorsment
    • Entry/Equipment:ATC clearence
    •          Transponder with Mode C
    • ATC: All traffic seperation
  37. Class C
    • VFR minimums:3sm B500 A1000 H2000
    • Pilot Certifications:student
    • Entry/Equipment:Establish radio contact before entry
    •                   Transponder with Mode C
    • ATC:IFR/ IFR seperation
    •        IFR/ VFR sepertion
    •        VFR traffic advisories (workload permitting)
  38. Class D Airspace
    • VFR Minimums:3sm B500 A1000 H2000
    • Pilot Certifications: Student
    • Entry/Equipment:Establish radio contact
    • ATC: IFR/IFR seperation
    •         VFR trffic advisories (workload permitting)
  39. Class E airspace
    • VFR minimums:3sm B500 A1000 H2000
    • Pilot Certifications: Student
    • Entry/Equipment: NoneATC: IFR/IFR seperation
    •          Traffic Advisories (workload permitting)
  40. Class G Airspace
    • VFR Minimums:10,000 feet or less
    •        3sm B500 A 1000 H2000
    • At or above 10,000  feet
    •        5sm B1000 A1000 H1sm
    • Pilot Certificates: Student
    • Entry/Equipment:None
    • ATC:IFR/IFR seperation
    •        VFR traffic advisories (workload permitting
  41. Define Precession
    tilting or turnng of  gyro in reponse to pressure
  42. Definition of TURN COORDINATOR
    It provides an indication of turn direction & quality.

    It uses  ball in a tube, inclinometer

    FAA: shows aircraft yaw & roll movements
  43. A standrd rate of turn =
    • 3o / second
    • complete a 360o urn in 2 minutes
  44. Turn slip
    The rate of speed is too slow for the angle of bank.  The ball moves to the inside of the turn.
  45. Turn skid
    The rate of speed is too great for the ngle of bnk.  The ball moves to the outside of the turn.
  46. Function of the Attitude Indicator
    FAA: As the plane banks the reltionship between the miniature plane and the horizon bar shows the direction of the turn.

    It senses the roll & pitch (which is up & down of planes nose)
  47. The 4 forces of flight
    • Lift
    • Weight
    • Thrust
    • Drag
  48. Relationship of Forces of flight per the Faa
    These forces are in equalibrium during unaccelerated flight.

    • In straight and level, unaccelerated flight
    •                 lift = weight
    •                 thrust = drag
  49. Bernoulli's Principle
    As the velocity of a fluid (such as air) increases, its pressure decreases.
  50. Define Airfoil
    ant surface (such as a wing) that provides aerodynamic force when it interacts with  moving strem of air.
  51. The shpe of an irfoil cuses air to..... as it passes over the wing, and ........ as it passes under.
    • accelerate
    • decelerate
  52. Relative wind
    airflow which is parallel to the opposite direction of the flight path.

    •          _Flight Path____>
    •         <______Relative Wind______
  53. Angle of Attack
    FAA: Angle formed by the wing chord line & the relative wind = angle of attack.
  54. YAW
    side to side motion of the nose
  55. PITCH
    up and down motion of the nose
  56. Define Heading Indicator
    IT senses movement & displays a heading based on  a 360o azimuth with the final 0 omitted.

    it is the primary source for heading information.

    FAA: it must be aligned with themagnetic compass before flight.
  57. Compass Varition
    is the angular difference between the true and magnetic poles at  given point.
  58. Compass Deviation
    FAA: Compass error due to disturbances from magnetic fields of the airplane and it's electronic equipment.
  59. Compass acceleration Error
    FAA:In the NORTHERN hemisphere if you accelerate the plane the compass shows a turn to the north.

    When you decelerate the compass will show  turn to the south.

    • DOES NOT happen on a NORTH/SOUTH heading.

    Remember: ANDS
  60. Function of the magnetic compass during turns
    FAA:when turning right the magnetic compass will show a deflection to the WEST when turning from the NORTH.

    When turning left, the mgnetic compass will show a deflection EAST when turning from the NORTH.
  61. Compass turning errors cause the compass to
    Lead or lag the actual heading during turns.
  62. The magnetic compass is accurate only during....
    straight anf level unaccelerated flight.
Card Set
Private Pilot
Private plot written exam