In Diana Buamrind's framework, how parents align on two dimensions of child rearing: nurturing (or child-centeredness) and discipline (or structure & rules).
In parenting-styles framework, the best possible child-rearing style, in which parents rank high on both nurturance and discipline, proving both love and clear family rules.
In parenting-styles framework, a type of childrearing in which parents provide plenty of rules but rank low on child-centeredness, stressing unquestioning obedience.
In parenting-styles framework, a type of childrearing in which parents provide few rules but rank high on child-centeredness, being extremely loving but providing little discipline.
In the parenting-styles framework, the worst child-rearing approach, in which parents provide little discipline and little nurturing or love.
Children who rebound from serious early life traumas to construct successful adult lives.
Among immigrants, the tendency to become more similar in terms of attitudes & practices to the mainstream culture after time spent living in a new society.
The use of physical force to discipline a child.
Any act that seriously endangers a child's physical or emotional well-being.
Measures that evaluate a child's knowledge in specific school-related areas.
The standard intelligence test used in childhood, consisting of a Verbal Scale (questions for the child to answer) a Performance Scale (materials for the child to manipulate), and a variety of subtests.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
The label for significantly impaired intellectual functioning, defined as when a child (or adult) has an IQ of 70 or below accompanied by evidence of deficits in learning abilities.
The label for any impairment in language or any deficit related to listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or understanding mathematics; diagnosed when a score on an intelligence test is much higher than a child's performance on achievement tests.
Specific learning disability
A learning disability that is characterized by reading difficulties, lack of fluency, and poor word recognition that is often genetic in origin.
The label for superior intellectual functioning characterized by an IQ score of 130 or above, showing that a child ranks in the top 2% of their age group.
In measurement terminology, a basic criterion of a test's accuracy that scores must be fairly similar when a person takes the test more than once.
In measurement terminology, a basic criterion for a test's accuracy involving whether that measure reflects the real-world quality it is supposed to measure.
Charles Spearman's term for a general intelligence factor that he claimed underlies all cognitive activities.
In Robert Sternberg's framework on successful intelligence, the facet of intelligence involving performing well on academic-type problems.
In Robert Sternberg's framework on successful intelligence, the facet of intelligence involved in producing novel ideas or innovative work.
In Robert Sternberg's framework on successful intelligence, the facet of intelligence involved in knowing how to act competently in real-world situations.
In Robert Sternberg's framework on successful intelligence, the optimal form of cognition, involving having a good balance of analytic, creative, and practical intelligence.
In Howard Gardner's perspective on intelligence, the principle that there are 8 separate kinds of intelligence - verbal, mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, naturalist - plus a possible 9th form, called spiritual intelligence.
Multiple intelligences theory
The drive to act based on the pleasure of taking that action in itself, not for an external reinforcer or reward.
The drive to take an action because that activity offers external reinforcers such as praise, money, or a good grade.