1. Amplitude
    vertical distance from the midpoint to the crest or trough
  2. height
    vertical distance from the crest to the trough
  3. wave length
    horizontal distance form a point on the wave to the corresponding point on the next wave
  4. frequency =
    # waves/ seconds
  5. period or interval =
    #seconds/ wave
  6. orbitals
    little circles that get smaller in the waves
  7. wave base
    the downward limit of water movement as a wave passes
  8. surface
    when wave approches shore and water depth is shallower than wave base the waves base the water breaks into
  9. spilling breaker
    gentle slope
  10. plunging breaker
    intermediate slope
  11. surging breaker
    steep slope
  12. eustatic sea level
    world wide sea level
  13. local sea level
    due to land uplifting or subsiding
  14. emergant (uplifted) coastline
    is being uplifted relative to sea level
  15. submerged coastline
    is sinking relative to sea level
  16. estuary
    valley flooded by rising sea level
  17. onshore (infltration)
    smaller waves (summer) transport sand
  18. offshore
    larger waves (winter) transport sand
  19. winter beach
    • narrower
    • steeper
    • coarser grains left behind
    • darker mafic grains behind (sand is darker)
    • more sand in offshore sand bars
  20. lattoral (beach) drift
    the movement of the sand, going back and forth
  21. refraction
    the bending of waves when they change speed
  22. wave reflection
    waves bounce off a flat surface
  23. hurbidity currents
    giant underwater avalanche of sediment and water that flows down the slope
  24. mid ocean ridges
    diverging plate boundary
  25. ophiolite sequence
    • slice of oceanic crust thrust onto land
    • deep sea sediment (chert of turbidites)
    • Pillow basalts
    • shorted dike complex
    • gabbro
    • serpentonized ultra mafic rock
  26. guyot
    flat topped sea mount formed by waves erosion and subrdence
  27. atoll
    ring shaped coral island
  28. hydrothermal vents
    black smokers on mid ocean ridge
  29. dip
    max. angle between a plan or surface (bed,fault ect.) and a horizontal surface
  30. strike
    line of intersection between a plan or surface and horizontal plane
  31. anticline
    both limbs dip away from the axis
  32. syncline
    both limbs dip towards the axis (younger rocks exposed at the axis)
  33. monocline
    only one limb
  34. axis of plunging anticline
    nose or "u" points in the direction of plunge
  35. axis of plunging syncline
    "nose" or "u" pints opposite the direction of plunge
  36. dip slip fault
    movement is primarily vertical (up and down)
  37. normal fault
    foot wall moves upward relative to the the hanging wall
  38. detachment fault
    a low angle (flat) normal fault
  39. reverse fault
    hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall
  40. thrust fault
    a low angle (flat) reverse fault
  41. strike slip faults
    movement is primarly horizontal
  42. oblique slip fault
    both horizontal and vertical movement
  43. body waves
    pass through the earths interior
  44. P (primary) waves
    • first to arrive
    • fastest 5.0 km/sec
    • compressional wave
    • (movement is in same direction as wave travel)
  45. S (secondary) wave
    • 3.5 km/sec
    • transverse waves" movement is perpendicular to the direction of wave travel)
    • only pass through solids not liquids or gas
  46. surface waves
    • follow earth surface
    • R(rayleigh) vertical transverse surface wave
    • L(love) horizontal traverse surface wave
  47. the first transverse wave must be a
    S wave
  48. seismogram recorded on a ?
    seismograph machine
  49. Richter Scale
    • developed on the 1930's
    • measure the amplitude of the S wave and the (S-P) to determine the distance to the quake
    • proportional to the total energy released in the quake
  50. logarythmic scale
    • each increase in magnitude means the size of the waves increased by 10
    • (energy increased by 10 pie (31.4)
  51. mercall scale of intensity
    • measure the effects of the shaking at a particular location
    • depends on
    • distance
    • magnitude
    • rock type= softer rock
  52. liqudfraction
    wet sediment turns to liquid when shaken
  53. the energy of the waves come from
    the wind
  54. wave refraction tends to
    bend waves parallel to the shoreline
  55. wave base for a wave is equal to
    half the wavelength
  56. between the berm and the seacliffs you would find what part of a beach
  57. upper newport bay and bolsa chica are good examples
  58. if a groin is built then there will be
    some deposition on the side that longshore current is coming from, but an equal amount of erosion on the downcurrent side
  59. spit
    a sand bar attached to the coast on one end
  60. stacks
    offshore rocks left behind as a coastline erodes
  61. the steepest part of a continental margin is called
    continental slope
  62. shelf break
    the edge of the continental shelf
  63. a flat topped seamount
  64. turbidity curents
    submarine telephone cables are most commonly broken
  65. deepest part of oceans
Card Set
sac geology