MODA drugs (6)

  1. Sulfamethoxazole
    • Synthetic antibiotic
    • Sulfa drug
  2. Ciprofloxacin
    • Synthetic antibiotic
    • Fluoroquinolone
  3. Penicillin
    • β-lactam antibiotic
    • Inihibts PG cross-linking transpeptidases
    • Pneumonia, septicaemia, bronchitis
    • Bactericidal
  4. Cephalosporins
    • Antibiotics
    • Treatment of bronchitis, pnuemonia, meningitis
  5. Amoxicillin
    • β-lactam antibiotic
    • Moderate spectrum
  6. Amphotericin B
    Polyene antibiotic
  7. Fosfomycin
    • Antibiotic
    • Inhibits cell wall biosynthesis
    • Inhibits pyruvyl transferase
  8. Bacitracin
    • Cyclic peptide antibiotic
    • Forms tight complex with Mg2+ and bactoprenol pyrophosphate
    • Inhibits regeneration of lipid carrier (so biosynthesis of PG)
  9. Vancomycin
    • Glycopeptide antibiotic
    • Binds to pentapeptidyl tails in PG subunit
  10. Tetracycline
    • Antibiotic
    • Targeted to the 30s subunit
  11. Streptomycin
    • Antibiotic
    • Targeted to the 30s subunit
  12. Chloramphenicol
    • Antibiotic
    • Targeted to the 50s subunit
  13. Aciclovir
    • Purine analogue
    • Upon activation by viral thymidine kinase, phosphorylated compound inhibits viral DNA polymerase.
    • Present in Zovirax creams against herpes simplex infections of the skin and mucous membranes.
  14. Amantadine
    • Blocks the function of M2 ion channel protein involved in nucleocapsid uncoating of influenza virus
    • Is used predominantly in prophylaxis, Influenza A infections. Not effective against Influenza B virus
  15. Artemisinin
    • Prodrug of the biologically active metabolite dihydroartemisinin
    • Mode of action might be based on the production of oxygenradicals.
  16. Bevacizumab
    anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody
  17. Chloroquine
    • Antimalarial 4-aminoquinoline drug
    • inhibits heme polymerisation in food vacuole of Plasmodium
  18. Cisplatin
    Platinum-based drug used to treat various types of cancers
  19. Clavulanate
    • natural product from streptomycete
    • ß-lactamase inhibitor
    • combination with amoxicillin = augmentin
  20. Co-trimoxazole
    • combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim
    • withdrawn - Stevens-Johnson syndrome, severe fatal allergic reaction.
    • used in AIDS patients with fungal infections.
  21. Cyclophosphamide
    • nitrogen mustard alkylating agent
    • prodrug converted in the liver
    • Used in the treatment of lymphomas
  22. Doxorubicin
    • anthracycline antibiotic that intercalates in DNA.
    • It is structurally closely related to daunomycin
    • often administered by local injection
  23. Erlotinib
    small molecule ligand that inhibits EGFR tyrosine kinase
  24. Erythromycin
    • 14-membered macrolide antibiotic
    • binds to 23SrRNA in 50S subunit, blocks the polypeptide exit tunnel.
    • second-line drug for patients allergic to penicillin.
  25. Etoposide
    • inhibitor of the enzyme topoisomerase II
    • used in the treatment of lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, and non-lymphocyticleukaemia
  26. Fansidar
    • combination of sulfadoxin and pyrimethamine
    • analogous to co-trimoxazole
    • Used in the treatment of P.falciparum malaria
  27. Fluconazole
    • triazole antifungal drug
    • inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis
    • often used in the treatment of athlete’s foot and vaginal candidiasis
  28. Flutamide
    • oral anti-androgen drug primarily used to treat prostate cancer
    • competes with testosterone for binding to androgen receptors in the prostate gland
    • prevents their stimulation of growth of prostate cancer cells.
  29. Fusidic acid
    • inhibits elongation factor G, and hence movement of the 30S subunit by one codon along the mRNA
    • Used against staphylococcal infections
  30. Goseraline
    • Decapeptide analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    • results in the down-regulation of testosterone and estrogen production.
  31. Imatinib
    • 2-phenylaminopyrimidine derivative that functions as a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinase enzymes
    • used in treating chronic myeloidleukemia, and gastrointestinal stromal tumours
  32. Isoniazid
    • used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis
    • inhibits the biosynthesis of mycolic acids in the cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  33. Leucovorin
    • adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy involving the drugmethotrexate
    • also used in combination with 5-fluorouracil.
  34. Methicillin
    • ß-lactam antibiotics
    • inhibits peptidoglycan-crosslinking transpeptidase enzymes by covalent and irreversible binding
  35. Methotrexate
    • antimetabolite and antifolate drug
    • acts by inhibiting the metabolism of folic acid
    • replaced aminopterin.
  36. Miconazole
    • imidazole antifungal and antiprotozoal drug.
    • inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis
  37. Mitomycin C
    • aziridine-containing antibiotic
    • alkylates and cross-links DNA, preventing strand separation during DNA replication
  38. Mitoxantrone
    • anthracycline agent used in the treatment of certain types of cancer
    • mostly metastatic breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and non-Hodgkin'slymphoma.
  39. Nevirapine
    • anti-HIV drug
    • non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
  40. Prednisone
    • synthetic corticosteroid prodrug that is converted by the liver into prednisolone
    • inhibits growth of lymphocytes in leukemias.
  41. Pyrimethamine
    • inhibits dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium.
    • Analogue ofthe antibiotic trimethoprim
  42. Rifampin
    • binds to β subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, inhibits initiation of RNA synthesis
    • often used to treat infections by Mycobacterium.
  43. Saquinavir
    inhibitor of HIV protease
  44. Sulfadoxin
    • sulfa drug that inhibits dihydropteroate synthase in Plasmodium
    • Analogue of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole
  45. Suramin
    • For human trypanosomiasis. 
    • therapeutic index is much higher than that of melarsen.
    • might act on glycolytic enzymes
  46. Tamoxifen
    • orally-active oestrogen receptor antagonist
    • used in the treatment of breast cancer
  47. Taxol
    • taxanes
    • mitoticinhibitor used to treat patients with lung, ovarian, breast cancer, head and neck cancer and advanced forms of Kaposi's sarcoma
  48. Topotecan
    • topoisomerase I inhibitor
    • Is used to treat ovarian cancer and lungcancer.
  49. Trastuzumab
    anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody
  50. Trimethoprim
    inhibits dihydrofolate reductase in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate
  51. Valinomycin
    • cyclic peptide antibiotic that binds K+
    • and facilitates K+ diffusion across the membrane
  52. Vinblastine
    vinca alkaloid and an anti-mitotic drug used to treat Hodgkin'slymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer and testicular cancer
  53. Zanamivir
    inhibit neuraminidase- plays an essential role in the release of the virion progeny from infected cells, and that assists in the movement of the virus particles through respiratory tract
  54. Zidovudine
    • reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    • thymidine analogue.
Card Set
MODA drugs (6)