17.1.1 and 2

  1. A group of intellectuals known as the __popularized the ideas of the __ and reexamined life. In Paris, women did what?  __ is one of them. Artists and philosophers did not mix well. Enlightenment , for __, meant __
    • philosophes
    • Scienticfic Revolution
    • took the lead iin bringing groups together to discuss their ideas
    • Marie-Therese de Geoffrin
    • philosophes

    rejecting traditional Christianity. 
  2. The Enlightenment: Kant
    • a.      1784: German Philosopher Immanual Kant defined Enlghtement as “man’s leaving his self- caused immaturity.”
    •                                                               i.      Use own intelligence
  3. The Enlightenment
    What was it
    •                                                               i.      Movement of intellectuals who dared to know, greatly impressed by accomplishments of Scientific Rev., and reason meant applying the scientific method to understand life.
    • 1.      Everything subject to rational scientific way of thinking  if people disregard old traditionsà progress toward a better society
  4. I.                   The Paths to Enlightenment
    Intellectuals and Popularization
    • a.      Intellectuals influenced by revolutionary 17th century thinkers
    • b.      Popularization of Science
    •                                                               i.      Scientific ideas acquired not only by original sources, like the hard to find/ read Newton’s Principia
    • 1.      Scientific ideas spread to circles of educated Europeans by popularizers, not scientists.
  5. De Fontenelle
    • a.      Bernard de Fontenelle important in link between Scientifc Revolution and philosophes
    •                                                               i.      Secretary of the French Royal Academy of Science
    • 1.      Performed no scientific experiments or made discoveries, but knew earlier and present scientific works  and could communicate body of scientific knownledge in witty way that appealed to upper class in a meaningful way
  6. De Fontenelle: One book
    • a.      One book, Plurality of Worlds, was in form of conversation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Two evenings under the starsà lady learns fundamentals of universe and educated elite
    •                                                             ii.      Due to him, science no longer monopoly of experts, but part of literature
    • 1.      Downplayed religious backgrounds of 17th c. scientists
    • He was a skeptic and contributed to skepticism toward religion by portraying church as enemies of scientific progress
  7. The New Skepticism
    •                                                               i.      17th c. scientists (Kepler, Galileo, Newton) did work to praise God, not undermine Christianity
    • 1.      With spread of scientific knowledge came questions of religious truths and values
  8. Pierre Bayle
    •                                                               i.      Skepticism about religion and growing secularization of thought evident by Pierre Bayle, who remained a Protestant while becoming a leading critic of traditional religious attitudes
    • 1.      Attacked superstition, religious intolerance, dogmatism
    • a.      Making people believe set of religious ideas= wrong
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      It creates hypocrites and contradicted religion
    • 1.      Individual conscience should determine one’s actions
  9. Bayle argued...
    • 1.      He argued for complete religious toleration, saying that the existence of many religions would benefit, not harm, the state
    •                                                             ii.      Bayle and others believed new rational principles of textual criticism should be applied to Bible and secular documents
  10. Bayl'e Dictionary
    • 1.      Historical and Critical Dictionary
    • a.      Bayle demonstrated results of own efforts with famous article on Israelite King David
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Replaced HEROIC David with SENSUAL, TREACHEROUS, CRUEL, AND EVIL man
    • b.      Bible of the 18th c. to intellectual s
  11. Impact of Travel Literature
    •                                                               i.      Skepticism about Christianity and European culture nourished by travel reports
    •                                                             ii.      Due to voyages of discovery, 17th c. traders, missionaries, practitioners, etc. published travel book sof cultures
  12. Cook
    •                                                               i.      18th c. geographic adventures, especially discovery of Tahiti, New Zealand and Australia by Cookà Cook’s Travels (his journeys)= best seller
    • 1.      Responses to it
    • a.      Some intellectuals: existence of exotic people was image of “natural man: far happier than many Europeansà noble savage
  13. Realization
    •                                                               i.      Also led to realization of highly developed civilizations with different customs in different parts of the world, especially China
    • 1.      Confucian > Christianity
    • 2.      Intellectuals evaluated their civilization relative to others
  14. Practices
    • a.      Practices grounded in reasonà just matters of custom
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      certainties about European practicesà cultural relativism
    • 1.      accompanied by religious skepticism
    • a.      Christian perception of God= one of many 
  15. Discovery of other peopel
    •                                                               i.      Discovery of other people= racial classificationà polygeness (belief in separate human species) vs. monogenesis (one human species with different racial variations)
    • 1.      Africans lowest rank of humankind
    • Encyclopedia by Denis Diderot= Africans were black and “new species of mankind
  16. Locke and Newton
                                                                  i.      Intellectual inspiration for Enlightenment from Locke and Newton
  17. Newton
    • 1.      greatest and rarest  genius”
    • a.      Intellectuals convicned that by following Newton’s rules of reasoning, they could discover the natural laws that governed politics, economics, justice, religion, and the arts
  18. Locke
    • 1.      Theory of knowledge influenced philosophes
    • 2.      Essay Concerning Human Understanding= Locke denied Descartes’ belief in inate ideas and said every person born with a blank mind (tabula rasa)
    • a.      Knowledge derived from environment, not heredity; reason, not faith
  19. Locke's philosophy
    • 1.      His philosophy implied people wre molded by environment and experiences received through senses
    • a.      By changing the environment and subjecting people to proper influences, they could be changed and a new society created
    •                                                             ii.      Together, these men’s ideas seemed to offer hope of a brave new world built on reason 
Card Set
17.1.1 and 2
The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment