- General habitat: fresh water
- Location: South America
- Physiological Facts:
- -largest known tadpole size (golfball)
- -used to understand metamorphosis
What are the 5 Central Themes in Animal Physiology?
- 1. Structure/Function Relationships
- 2. Effects of Environment
- 3. Homeostasis
- 4. Feedback/control systems
- 5. Conformity & Regulation
Function depends on...
The result of the process of evolution through natural selection that leads organisms to have physiology, anatomy, and behavior that meets the demands in their environment.
Change in gene frequency.
Acts on the level of population.
A _____ can evolve, but not a ______.
Factors of the environment that act on the individual, by which biological traits become more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers.
-Physiological changes that result from environmental stimuli within lifetime of individual.
-Is reversible; not permanent changes
Physiological changes that result from environmental stimuli that is being experimentally imposed on an animal, e.g. in a lab, not in natural environment
-Condition of being relatively stable.
-Having internal stability through external environmental changes.
Occurs when the result of a process influences the operation of the process itself in such a way as to reduce changes. Give an example.
Negative Feedback; car braking, shivering, sweating, production of CRF being reduced when cortisol levels are too high
A process in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation. Give an example.
Positive feedback; diarrhea, clotting of blood, formation of action potential
The movement of an ion depends on interactions with ________ & _______.
Chemical gradient & Electrical gradient
The ionic steady state is maintained by...
different concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell
Sodium is higher _____ of the cell, and potassium is higher _____ of the cell
What theoretical concept works well for for K & Cl, but not for other types of ions used in the cell?
Single-celled organisms use _____ to dump water and prevent lysis. This is an example of _____ of _____.
- -regulation of cell volume
-can move a solute into the cell and pump it out so water can follow
Ionized/ionizable molecules in the cell
Moves through aquapores, is size-permitting, avoids selective membranes, moves and gets to cells & receptors it's supposed to.
What determines if molecules pass through pores?
- 1. charge
- 2. size of pore
- 3. ease of dehydration
This structure is small, is comprised of water-filled channels, and allows different molecules to pass through from one cell to another with water.
This hypothesis states that water can be moved by osmotic gradients that are established by solute transport.