Water Quality Part 1

  1. Pollution sensitive organisms
    Mayflies, caddisflies, stonefly, dobson fly, gilled snails, water penny, riffle beetle, and water scorpion
  2. Mayflies
    Indicate clear water source

    eaten by many kinds of fish

    Incomplete Metamorphosis-Eggs are laid in water and sink to the bottom. Nymphs undergo several molts 

    • Omnivorous-Eat organic debris, such as plankton
    • or diatoms.

    usually has 3 tails
  3. CaddisflyImage Upload 2
    • Different species indicate varying levels of
    • pollution

    Eaten by many kinds of fish

    Complete Metamorphosis- Eggs are attached to submerged vegetation, worm-like, soft-bodied larvae enter pupae stage before becoming adults. 

    • Omnivorous- Larvae feed on algae, plant
    • material, and animals, building nets to catch food

    Adults live for a very short time.
  4. StoneflyImage Upload 4
    • Indicate fast-moving clean water with much
    • oxygen

    Eaten by many species of fish

    Incomplete Metamorphosis-Eggs are laid on water and sink to the bottom. Nymphs have many molts 

    • Carnivorous, sometimes Omnivorous-eat algae,
    • bacteria, and debris.

    2 toes and 2 tails
  5. DobsonflyImage Upload 6
    Only present in very clean environments; Intolerant of pollution

    Eaten by many kinds of fish

    complete metamorphosis

    does not eat in its mature form. -Hellgrammites (dobsonfly larvae) consume aquatic insects.

    Carnivorous, larva attracted to light
  6. Image Upload 8
    Cannot tolerate pollution as they need oxygen rich water 

    May be eaten by fish, ducks, and leeches

    Lay eggs in a jelly clump under rocks and leaves, may live 2-5 years

    Feeds on algae

    • Only count live ones when monitoring water
    • quality
  7. Water PennyImage Upload 10
    Indicate much oxygen and fast-moving waters

    Eaten by freshwater trout and some insects

    • Complete Metamorphosis-Eggs are laid on
    • undersides of stones. Larvae resemble encrustations on rock

    Herbivorous-eat plant debris and algae
  8. Riffle BeetleImage Upload 12
    clean, oxygen rich, fast-moving bodies of water

    Eaten by many kinds of fish

    • Complete Metamorphosis- Eggs are laid underwater
    • on plant material

    Herbivorous-Eat plant material and diatoms
  9. Image Upload 14
    • Indicate slow moving bodies of water. Usually
    • found in areas with little vegetation

    Prey on invertebrates

    • Eggs are laid above the waterline in mud or
    • decomposing plants. Different species have different ways of supplying air. Go
    • through many molts

    • Carnivorous- eat mostly invertebrates, some
    • small fish or tadpoles

    Also known as Nepidae. Not actually scorpions
  10. Moderately Sensative Organisms
    Aquatic sowbug, damselfly, dragonfly, scuds, crane fly
  11. Aquatic sowbugImage Upload 16
    Can cope with organic waste, indicating streams recovering from sewage pollution

    Consume dead and decaying material. Eaten by many vertebrates and invertebrates

    Grow throughout entire lives, shedding exoskeletons often immature sowbugs look very similar to mature one, the main difference being the size

    Omnivorous- bottom feeder that consumes dead animal matter and decaying plants

    Also known as isopods
  12. Image Upload 18
    Indicate slow moving water, such as streams, ponds, or lakes. 

    Molt several times before reaching their adult, winged stage

    Carnivorous - immature Damselflies feed on daphnia, mosquito larvae, and other small aquatic organisms. As adults, they feed on mosquitoes, flies, and other small insects

    Damselflies leave wings parallel to body when at rest
  13. DragonflyImage Upload 20
    Indicate slow moving water, such as streams, ponds, or lakes

    Once they reach adulthood, they can travel extremely fast

    Carnivorous - immature dragonflies feed on daphnia, mosquito larvae, and other small aquatic organisms. As adults, they feed on mosquitoes, flies, and other small insects.

    Wings perpendicular to body when at rest
  14. ScudsImage Upload 22
    Calcium and nutrient - rich water clear of sediments and pollution

    Eaten by fish, mainly trout

    Molt regularly throughout life

    Omnivorous - eat mostly decaying matter
  15. Crane flyImage Upload 24
    Indicate very clean water

    Clean up lakes and ponds

    Complete metamorphosis - wormlike, thick, brownish larvae. Adults resemble large mosquitoes with larger bodies, but are harmless

    Omnivorous - eat plants and debris, and occasionally small insects
  16. Moderately tolerant organisms
    Water mite, midge, blackfly, flatworm, and leeches
  17. Water miteImage Upload 26
    Open, clean water, sometimes in pool bottoms

    Attacks fish and other animals

    Complete metamorphosis

    Carnivorous - bloodsucker
  18. MidgeImage Upload 28
    Indicate poor water quality and are tolerant of pollution

    Complete metamorphosis - larvae are very small, wormlike, and green, gold, brown, tan, or black. Adults resemble small mosquitoes. Males have fuzzy antennae

    Omnivorous - eat algae, debris, and insect larvae
  19. BlackflyImage Upload 30
    Indicate swift-flowing water and too many nutrients

    Complete metamorphosis - larvae are small, wormlike, and bulbous at one end. When out of water, they fold themselves in half while wiggling; color varies from green, brown, gray, but usually black; length up to 1/3 inch. Adults inflict painful bites on warm-blooded animals

    Omnivorous - eat organic debris and blood
  20. FlatwormImage Upload 32
    Indicate poor water quality

    Eaten by many fish

    Hermaphroditic - reproduce through penis fencing

    Carnivorous - usually parasitic
  21. LeechesImage Upload 34
    Indicate running water of very poor quality

    Hermaphroditic - reproduce by reciprocal fertilization. Worm-like; flattened lengthwise and possess a sucker at each end

    Omnivorous - feed on blood and decaying matter
  22. Pollution tolerant organisms
    Air breathing snail, deer fly, horse fly, tubifex, blood midge
  23. Air breathing snailImage Upload 36
    Nutrient enriched conditions and poor water quality

    Preyed upon by fish, birds, and some turtles

    Opening on left side of shell, brown, gray or black, often with algae growing on the shell

    Omnivorous - eat algae, other aquatic plants, and sometimes dead animals

    Length is up to 1/2 inch
  24. Deer flyImage Upload 38
    Eaten by wasps, hornets, dragonflies, and killdeer

    smaller than horse flies
  25. Horse flyImage Upload 40
    Usually found in flow-moving waters

    Larvae are found in ponds, marshes, and the riparian zone of streams. Female adults consume blood. Active in daytime. Adults are found near freshwater. They live in the water or in moist areas

    Complete metamorphosis. Adults lay eggs on vegetation above the water surface

    Predatory, eating other insects, and even small fish and amphibians. They eat by sucking out fluids and organs of their prey. Males eat nectar. Females feed on blood after mating

    Short antennae, uniform wings
  26. TubifexImage Upload 42
    Found in stagnant water with soft mud bottoms. High number indicate very poor water quality

    Inhabit sediments in lakes, rivers, and sewer lines, - detritivores. used for fish food and also eaten by bottom-feeding fish, insects, leeches, and crustaceans

    Hermaphroditic. Produce egg cases called cocoons

    Feed on decaying organic matter, detritus, and vegetable matter

    Polluted and oxygen deprived water
  27. Blood MidgeImage Upload 44
    • low-oxygen, nutrient rich water- indicate poor
    • water quality

    • Larvae and pupae eaten by insects and fish.
    • Adults eaten by bats, birds, and other insects. Larvae clean up the environment

    • Larvae hatch in ten days from eggs laid on
    • plants. After weeks or months of feeding, they pupate

    • Larvae primarily feed on algae and other organic
    • debris. Adults usually do not feed.

    • larvae live where there is little oxygen (the
    • hypolinmion)
  28. Air Breathing Organisms
    Whirligig Beetle (coleoptera), Water Strider, Mosquito, Giant Water Bug, Back Swimmer, Water Boatman, Predacious Diving Beetle
  29. Air Breathing Organisms
    Large numbers indicate moderate water quality

    • larger beetles and fish will eat
    • whirligig beetles, which prey on small organisms -swim at the surface

    complete metamorphosis

    • Larvae but prey on smaller insects. Adults
    • scavenge for floating materials and eat other aquatic insects

    sensitive antennae
  30. Whirligig Beetle (coleoptera)Image Upload 46
    • Large numbers can indicate moderate, or slightly
    • polluted water quality.

    • eaten by some birds and fish
    • -When there is no competition, they often live in large groups

    • Eggs are deposited underwater. Maturation rate is
    • highly correlated to water temperature

    • aquatic predators that feed mostly on
    • insects and spiders

    •  -The water strider sucks out the fluids from
    • its prey.

  31. MosquitoImage Upload 48
    Not a good water quality, their larvae are only found in stagnant water

    Found near standing water or moist soil, common and disease-spreading pests, larvae are eaten by species of fish and dragonfly nymphs

    Eggs are laid individually or in rafts in the water or in an area that will be flooded

    Larvae are collector-filterers of algae, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, some eat other mosquito larvae, adult males feed on nectar

    Eradication wouldn't have major ecological consequences
  32. Image Upload 50
    Prefer clear water with aquatic vegetation, adults spend winter in mud at bottom of pool

    Found in freshwater pongs and streams with slow moving water, ambush predators, top of aquatic insect food chain

    Eggs are laid in summer males take care of eggs, nymphs hatch and molt 5 times

    Larvae eat small aquatic invertebrates, adults prey on insects, salamanders, tadpoles, and small fish

    Out of preys' insides
  33. Back swimmerImage Upload 52
    Wide range of water quality conditions, can indicate polluted water

    Live in still water/slower parts of streams, often rest on plants, even in benthic (deep) zone, are predators but are eaten by predatious fish

    Elongated white eggs, nymphs hatch, adults appear

    Nymphs eat small insects, sometimes cannibalizing, adults eat other insects, crustaceans, snails, fish, and tadpoles

    Swim upside down near surface
  34. Water boatmanImage Upload 54
    Wide range of pollution-tolerance, some are highly tolerant of water pollution

    Usually primary consumers, some predatory, eaten by fish and predacious water insects, live in bottom of stagnant waters

    Eggs attach to aquatic vegetation, breathe through sin first, then use trapped air

    Feed on aquatic plants and algae, liquefying their food, some predatory, feed on detritus
  35. Predacious diving beetle

    Image Upload 56
    Good water quality, breathe underwater

    Breathe with a bubble they dive down with spiracles on abdomen, eaten by birds, mammals, fish

    Eggs laid in water or on aquatic vegetation

    Larvae and adults are predators, eat tadpoles and glassworm, found in standing water
Card Set
Water Quality Part 1