NURS 451_Monday_2

  1. Freud's theory:
    Psychoanalytic theory
  2. Freud's 3 levels of awareness
    • conscious: aware at any given time
    • preconscious: easily retrieved
    • unconscious: repressed
  3. Freud's personality structure:
    • ID: instinctual (pleasure, source)
    • Ego: contorls our actions & perceptions (problem solver, reason)
    • Superego: conscience (perfection, moral, ideal)
  4. Psychoanalytic therapy
    • -talk therapy (cathartic--getting it all off your chest)
    • -revealing the unconscious
    • -nondirective
    • -psychodynamic (shorter therapy)
  5. Freud's Psychodynamic techniques: transference
    • Develops when the patient experiences feeligns toward the nurse/therapist that were originally held toward significant others in his life.
    • -when it occurs, these feelings become available for exploration with the pt
    • -transfers emotional baggage to us
    • -act as how they believe we will respond based on their relationships
  6. Freud's Psychodynamic techniques: countertransference
    • health care worker's unconscious, personal response to the pt
    • -pt brings out our emotions so that we respond inappropriately
  7. Psychodynamic therapy
    • Tends to last longer.
    • Oriented toward the here and now and makes less of an attempt to reconstruct the developmental origins of conflicts.
  8. Interpersonal theory: Harry Stack Sullivan's definition of personality
    behavior that can be observed within interpersonal relationships
  9. Interpersonal Theory
    Harry Stack Sullivan
  10. Sullivan: Security operations
    Measures that hte individual employs to reduce anxiety and enhance security
  11. Margaret Mahler's theory
    Theory of Object Relations: first experience infants has with caregiver
  12. Interpersonal model focuses on the...
    • here and now.
    • -Time is spent examining relationships
    • -therapist becomes a participant observer"
  13. Interpersonal model works to change...
    dysfunctional relationship patterns
  14. Pavlov's theory
    Classical conditioning
  15. Pavlov's experiment
    Dogs were able to anticipate when food would be forthcoming and would begin to salivate even before actually tasting the meat
  16. John Watson's theory
    • Behaviorism Theory: personality traits and responsive were socially leanred through classical onditioning
    • -Albert liked animals. Watson made a loud noise with a hammer every time the infant reached for a white rat. Albert became terrified at the sight of white fur/hair even without a loud noise.
  17. Skinner's theory
    • Operant conditioning: Volunteered behaviors are learned through consequences and reenforcement
    • Positive: reward system
    • Negative: removal of an objectionable/aversive stimuli
  18. Behavioral Therapy
    • -Modeling (role model--learns through imitation)
    • -Operant conditioning (Positive reinforcement--token economy)
    • -Systematic desensitization (steps to reduce fear of elevators)
    • -Aversion therapy (aka punishment--substance abuse disulfiram)
    • -Biofeedback
  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    Aaron Beck
  20. Beck's Theoretical principle
    Emotions and behavior are largely determined by the way in which people think about the world and their place in it.
  21. Common cognitive distortions
    • all-or-nothing
    • overgeneralization
    • labeling
    • mental filter
    • disqualifying the positive
    • jumping to conclusions
    • magnification/minimization
    • emotional reasonong
    • "should" and "must" statements
    • personalization
  22. Cognitive Behavior Therapy models
    • -systematic desensitization (counter-conditionign)
    • -exposure/response prevention (stay and work through the stress)
    • -relaxation
    • -cognitive modification
    • -assertiveness training
    • -stress management
    • -problem solving
    • -positie and negative reinforcement
  23. Erikson's theory
    • *Psychosocial development: culture and society exert significant influence on personality.
    • -Personality was not set in stone @ age 5, but continued to develop through the lifespan
    • -Failures at one stage can be rectified at another stage
  24. Humanistic Theories: Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
    Human beings are active participants in life, striving for self-actualization
  25. Maslow: physiological needs
    Most basic needs: food, O2, H2O, rest, sex, elimination
  26. Maslow: Safety
    Security, protection, stability, structure, order, limits
  27. Maslow: love and belonging
    affiliation, affectionate relationships, love
  28. Maslow: esteem
    self-esteem related to competency, achievement, esteem from others
  29. Maslow: self-actualization
    • Becomign everythign one is capable of
    • -moreality, creativity, spontaneity, problem-solving, tack of prejudice, acceptance of facts
  30. Maslow's Hierarchy
    • 1. Physiological
    • 2. Safety
    • 3. Love and belonging
    • 4. Esteem
    • 5. Self-actualization
  31. Carl Rogers: client centered
    • Empathy
    • unconditioned positive regard
    • genuineness
    • *emotional investment in the clietn is essentail int he therapeutic process
  32. Biological theories focus on..
    Neurological, chemical, biological, genetic
  33. Biological Model
    • Psychopharmacology (primary)
    • ECT
    • Sleep
    • nutrition
    • stress management
    • weight management
  34. Peplau: nurse-patient relationship
    Shifting the focus from what the nurses do to patients to what nurses do with patients.
  35. Peplau: Participant Observer
    mutuality, respect for the pt, unconditional acceptance, empathy
Card Set
NURS 451_Monday_2
Ch. 2