What are the two types of power?
- Legitimacy- The willingness of citizens to obey the government
- Coercive Force- Forcing people to obey government rules**Comes from the police and military institutions of the government
What are the origin theories?
- Evolution theory- The state evolved from the family
- Force theory- brought under the authority of one person or group
- Divine Right theory- God or gods have chosen certain people to rule
- Social Contrast theory (Hobbes and Locke)- people surrender the power needed to maintain order to the state. The state, in turn, agrees to protect its citizens.
- Hobbes- Can't break contract
- Locke- Can break contract/life, liberty, and property
What are the three forms/systems of government?
- Unitary System- National government controls all the power. The local/state governments only carry out the orders of the national government. This is more effective in geographical smaller nations.
- Confederate System- State governments control all the power. The national government is weak with very limited powers or non-existent. US attempted this under the Articles of Confederation, but it wasn't effective. (Too weak)
- Federal System- The national and state governments each hace their own separate powers, and may share powers. This works well in large nations.
What is the purpose of government?
- Maintain social order
- Provide public service
- Provide national security and a common defense
- Provide for, and control the economic system
What is the difference between a state and a nation?
- State (Country)- Politics and Government; Geography; Make and Enforce Laws
- Nation- Sizeable group of people bound together by something in common. Ex: Religion, Language, Customs, and Tradition
What are the essential features of a state?
- Population- Needs to have people (affects stability)
- Territory- Needs boundaries to clarify what is and is not the state
- Sovereignty- The state ahs supreme and absolute control within its boundaries, complete independence
- Government- Institution through which state remains social order, provides public service, and enforces decisions that bind all people living in the state
What are the characteristics of democracy?
- Individual liberty/freedoms
- Majority rule w/minority rights
- Free/fair elections
- Competing political parties
- Free enterprise
- Necessity of compromise
What are the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of the following types of government?
What are the characteristics of traditional, command, market and mixed-market economies?
- Private ownership and control of property and resources
- Individual incentive
- Competition among businesses
- Freedom of choice
- The possibility of profit
- Risk of failure
What role does the government play in maintaining social order in the economy?
What role does the government play in maintaining social order in national security?
What role does the government play in maintaining social order in providing public services?
What are the characteristics of a unitary form of government?
- **Most power
- All key powers to the national or central government
- The central government has the power to create state, provincial, or local governments and give them limited soverginty
What are the characteristics of a federal form of government?
- Power is divided and shared between National and State (provincial) governments
- Usually outlined by a constitution
What are the characteristics of a confederate form of government?
- A loose nation of independent states
- Strong state government; weak central government
- State could coin their own money (biggest weakness)
How much government control is there in a traditional economy?
Habit and customs dictate the rules for all economic activity
How much government control is there in a command economy?
Central authority (usually the government) makes all of the economic decisions
How much government control is there in a market economy? (Laissex-Faire, Free Enterprise, Pure Capitalism)
Government should not interfere with the economy
How much government control is there in a mixed-market economy?
Buyers and Sellers make most of the decisions, however, the government makes some decisions