1. Scientific theories do all of the following EXCEPT...
    prove the validity of the scientific method
  2. The idea that adaptations best suited to the environment are those most likely to be maintained in the population is associated with
    the evolutionary perspective.
  3. Some researchers have suggested that violent video games may teach children to associate violence with rewards because many games give a player points for killing or hurting an opponent. This view is most consistent with the ____ perspective.
    social learning
  4. In comparing the sociocultural and social learning perspectives, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT
    Both groups emphasize relatively rapid change in behavior.
  5. A researcher studies individual differences in the extent to which people pay attention to, interpret, and remember events from a social situation. The researcher is most likely take a
    social cognitive perspective.
  6. The social cognitive perspective emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT
  7. All of the following are fundamental social motives mentioned in the text EXCEPT
    To reward our friends and punish our enemies
  8. Which of the following perspectives would emphasize most strongly the social motive of attracting and retain mates?
  9. ________ is a feature of the person, whereas ________ is a feature of the situation.
    Sleepiness; a boring lecture
  10. Which of the following is a definition of a hypothesis?
    An educated guess about what a researcher will find
  11. Which of the following would be least likely to be categorized as a descriptive method of research?
  12. If you take an extraversion-introversion test several times and consistently receive the same score, the test is said to have
    high reliability.
  13. As the outside temperate goes down, use of home heating oil in New England goes up. This relationship is an example of a
    negative correlation.
  14. Internal validity refers to
    the extent to which an experiment allows confident conclusions about cause and effect.
  15. The two principal tasks of a scientific social psychology are description and explanation.
  16. The social learning perspective emphasizes the impact of culture and social norms on human behavior.
  17. A broad principle that the text emphasizes is that social behavior represents a continual interaction between the person and the situation.
  18. The dependent variable is the variable manipulated by the experimenter.
  19. Combining different methods to test a hypothesis leads to more confident conclusions.
  20. Inclusive Fitness
    The survival of one's genes in one's own offspring and in any relatives one helps.
  21. Need to belong
    The human need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships.
  22. Social Norm
    A Rule of expectation for appropriate social behavior.
  23. Reliability
    The consistency of the score yielded by a psychological test.
  24. External Validity
    The extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized to other circumstances.
  25. Observer Bias
    Error introduced into measurement when and observes overemphasizes behaviors he or she expect to find and fails to notice behaviors he or she does not expect.
  26. Correlation
    the extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another.
  27. Field experimentation
    The manipulation of independent variable using unknowing participants in natural settings.
  28. Perspective taking
    The process of mentally putting oneself in another's position.
  29. Internal Validity
    The extent to which an experiment allows confident statements about cause and effect.
  30. Erotomania
    A disorder involved the fixed(but incorrect) belief that one is loved by another, which persists in the face of strong evident to the contrary.
  31. Generalizability
    The extent to which the findings of a particular research study extend to other similar circumstances or cases.
  32. Natural Selection
    The process by which characteristics that help animals survive and reproduce are passed on the their offspring.
  33. Pluralistic ingnorance
    The mistaken impression on the part of group members that, because no one else is acting concerned, there is no cause for alarm.
  34. Polyandry
    Marital arrangement involving one woman and more than one husband.
  35. Pure(true) altruism
    Action intended solely to benefit another and thus not to gain external or internal reward.
  36. Monogamy
    Marital custom in which one man marries one woman.
  37. Anxious/ ambivalent attachment style
    Attachments marked by fear of abandonment and the feeling that one's needs are not being met.
  38. Bystander Effect
    The tendency of a bystander to be less likely to help in an emergency if there are other onlookers present.
  39. Representative Sample
    A group of respondents having characteristics that match those of the larger population the researcher wants to describe.
  40. Secure Attachment Style
    Attachments marked by trust that the other person will continue to provide love and support.
  41. Need-based rule
    Each person in a social relationships provides benefits as the other needs them, without keeping account of individual costs and benefits.
  42. Social desirability bias
    The tendency for people to say what they believe is appropriate or acceptable.
  43. Correlation coefficient
    A mathematical expression of the relationship between two variables.
  44. Social cognitive perspective
    A theoretical viewpoint that focuses on the mental processes involved in paying attention to, interpreting, and remembering social experiences.
  45. Demand Characterisitic
    Cue that makes participants aware of how the experimenter expects them to behave.
  46. Independent variable
    The variable manipulated by the experimenter.
  47. Evolutionary Perspective
    A theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in the physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce.
  48. Polygamy
    Marital custom in which either one man marries more than one woman(polygyny) or one woman marries more than one man (polyandry)
  49. Archival Method
    Examination of systematic data originally collected for other purposes(Such as marriage licenses or arrest records).
  50. Intimacy
    Factor on love scales composed of items tapping feelings of close bonding with another.
  51. Decision/commitment
    Factor on love scales composed of items tapping decision that one is in love with and committed to another.
  52. Avoidant attachment style
    Attachments marked by defensive detachment from the other.
  53. Experiment
    A research method in which the researcher sets out to systematically manipulate one source of influence while holding others constant.
  54. Mood management hypothesis
    The idea that people use helping tactically to manage their moods.
  55. Person
    Features or characteristics that individuals carry into social situations.
  56. Diffusion of responsibility
    The tendency for each group member to dilute personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members.
  57. Sociocultural perspective
    The theoretical viewpoint that searches for the  causes of social behavior in influences from larger social groups.
  58. Passion
    The factor on love scales composed of items tapping romantic attraction and sexual desire.
  59. Sociosexual orientation
    Individual differences in the tendency to prefer either unrestricted sex(without the necessity of love) or restricted sex (only in the context of a long-term, loving relationship.)
  60. Equity Rule
    Each person's benefits and costs in social relationships should be matched to the benefits and costs of the other.
  61. Situation
    Enviornmental events or circumstances outside the person.
  62. Social responsibility norm
    The societal rule that people should help those who need them to help.
  63. Hypothesis
    A researchers prediction about what he or she will find.
  64. Prosocial behavior
    Action intended to benefit another.
  65. Passionate love
    A state of intense longing for union with another.
  66. Random Assignment
    The practice of assigning participants to treatments so each person has an equal chance of being in any condition.
  67. Arousal/Cost-reward model
    The view that observers of a victim's suffering will want to help in order to relieve their own personal distress.
  68. Polygyny
    Marital arrangement involving one man and more than one wife.
  69. Descriptive method
    • Procedure for measuring or recording behaviors, thoughts and feelings in their natural state.
    • -naturalistic observations
    • -case studies
    • -archival studies
    • -surveys
  70. Survey Method
    A technique in which the researcher asks people to report on their beliefs,feelings, or behaviors.
  71. Adaption
    A characteristic well designed for survival and reproduction in a particular enviornment
  72. Confound
    A variable that systematically changes along with the independent variable  potentially leading to a mistaken conclusion about the effect of the independent variable.
  73. Case Study
    an intensive examination of an individual or group.
  74. Social Psychology
    The scientific study of how peoples thoughts,feelings and behaviors are influenced by other people.
  75. Companionate Love
    Affection and tenderness felt for those whose lives are entwined with our own.
  76. Naturalistic obeservation
    Recording everyday behaviors as they unfold in their natural settings.
  77. Reciprocal aid
    Helping that occurs in return for prior help.
  78. Personal Norms
    The internalized beliefs and values that combine to form a person's inner standards for behavior.
  79. Three-stage pattern of seperation distress
    • The reaction sequence shown by infants or adults separated from those to whom they are intimately attached:
    • 1.protest-attempts to reestablish
    • 2.despair-inactivity and helplessness
    • 3.detachment-lack of concern and coolness toward the parent or lover.
  80. Secure base
    Comfort provided by an attachment figure, which allows the person to venture forth more confidently to explore the environment.
  81. Social Learning Perspective
    a theoretical viewpoint that focuses on past learning experiences as determinants of a person's social behaviors.
  82. Dependent Variable
    The variable measured by the experimenter.
  83. Debriefing
    a discussion of procedures, hypotheses and participants reactions at the completion of the study.
  84. Experimental method
    Procedure for uncovering causal processes by systematically manipulating some aspect of a situation.
  85. Androgynous
    Demonstrating a combination of masculine and feminine characteristics in one's behaviors.
  86. Empathy-altruism hypothesis
    The presumption that when one empathizes with the plight of another, one will want to help that other for purely altruistic reasons.
  87. Two-factor theory of love
    The theory that love consists of general arousal(factor one), which is attributed to the presence of an attractive person (factor two-- the cognitive label that the feeling is love).
  88. Empathic concern
    Compassionate feelings caused by taking the perspective of a needy other.
  89. Factor analysis
    A statistical technique for sorting test items or behaviors into conceptually similar groupings.
  90. Validity
    The extent to which a test measure what it is designed to measure.
  91. According to Sternberg (1986), love can be defined by which three essential components?
    passion, intimacy, and commitment
  92. In the Clark and Hatfield (1989) field experiment, an unknown male or female approached a member of the opposite sex and asked one of three questions: if the person wanted to go out on a date, to go to the person's apartment, or to go to bed. Which of the following statements about the results is FALSE?
    Fewer men agreed to go to bed than to go out on a date.
  93. Sara wants to conduct an experimental study of the effect of increased sexual desire on characteristics that men and women find attractive in their partners. Which of the following is the best way to increase sexual desire and fantasy among her participants?
    give both men and women injections of testosterone
  94. Karen agrees strongly with the statement "Sex without love is OK," and prefers having multiple sexual partners even if she's not emotionally close to them. Karen has
    an unrestricted sociosexual orientation.
  95. Which of the following statements is true regarding the influence of culture on gender differences in casual sex?
    The gender difference appears consistent across cultures.
  96. Which of the following can increase attraction to a good-looking potential romantic partner?
    • -engaging in aerobic exercise  
    • -being on a rickety suspension bridge that ----spans a deep canyon  
    • -playing strenuous game of Twister
    • -All of the above
  97. In the Haselton and Buss study (2000), why were men less likely to perceive a woman as being flirtatious when that woman was his sister?
    Men overperceive sexual intent only when they are interested in having sex with the woman.
  98. If Monica suffers from erotomania, what is she most likely to do?
    stalk the object of her obsession regardless of his interest in her
  99. How do members of relationships change their perceptions of others to maintain the stability of their relationships?
    They view other potential partners as less attractive.
  100. Men are more attracted to a woman's ________, whereas women are more attracted to a man's ________.
    attractiveness; status
  101. A marital custom where one man marries more than one woman is known as
  102. A man who possesses characteristics that are traditionally male as well as those that are traditionally female is called
  103. Which of the following attachment styles is most clearly linked to being clingy and emotionally demanding?
  104. Which of the following is true about jealousy?
    Jealousy over infidelity is one of the most common causes of divorce.
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