Medical Terminology 2013 Chapter 2

  1. Cell
    Basic unit of life
  2. Tissues
    Group of identical cells working together
  3. Organs
    Composed of two or more types of tissue
  4. Systems
    Collection of organs working together
  5. Whole Body
    All systems working together to sustain life
  6. Levels of Body Organization
    cells-> tissues-> organs-> systems
  7. What four terms are associated with cells?
    Cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytology and nucleus
  8. cytology
    study of cells and their functions
  9. cell membrane
    the outermost boundary of a cell
  10. cytoplasm
    the watery internal environment of the cell
  11. nucleus
    contains the cell's DNA
  12. What are four types of tissues?
    connective tissues, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, and nervous tissue
  13. histology
    study of tissue
  14. What are muscles composed of?
    muscle fibers
  15. muscle tissue
    produces movement in the body through contraction, or shortening in length
  16. What are three basic types of muscles?
    cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle
  17. skeletal muscle
    attached to bone
  18. smooth muscle
    found in internal organs
  19. cardiac muscle
    found only in the heart
  20. epithelial tissue (epithelium)
    close-packed cells that form the covering for and lining of body structures
  21. Other than protective barrier what can epithelium be specialized to do?
    absorb substances, secrete substances, or excrete wastes
  22. connective tissue
    the supporting and protecting tissue in body structures
  23. What are the four types of connective tissue?
    adipose, bone, cartilage and tendons
  24. bone
    provides structural support for the whole body
  25. cartilage
    the shock absorber in joints
  26. tendons
    tightly connect skeletal muscles to bones
  27. adipose
    provides protective padding around body structures
  28. what is nervous tissue composed of?
    cells called neurons
  29. what do the nervous tissues form?
    brain, spinal cord and a network of nerves throughout the entire body
  30. integumentary system
    • Structures: skin, hair nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
    • Function: forms protective two-way barrier and aids in temperature regulation
  31. musculoskeletal System
    • Structures: bones, joints, muscles
    • Function: Skeleton supports and protects the body, forms blood cells, and stores minerals. Muscles produce movement
  32. cardiovascular system
    • Structures: heart, arteries, veins
    • Function: Pumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen and wastes
  33. blood (hematic system)
    • Structures: plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
    • Function: Transports oxygen, protects against pathogens, and controls bleeding
  34. lymphatic system
    • Structures: lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus gland, tonsils
    • Function: Protects the body from disease and invasion from pathogens
  35. respiratory system
    • Structures: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
    • Function: Obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body
  36. digestive/ gastrointestinal system
    • Structures: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, salivary glands
    • Function: Ingests, digests, and absorbs nutrients for the body
  37. urinary system
    • Structures: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    • Function: Filters waste products out of the blood and removes them from the body
  38. female reproductive system
    • Structures: ovary, fallopian tuves, uterus, vagina, vulva, breasts
    • Function: Produces eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby
  39. male reproductive system
    • Structures: testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland
    • Function: Produces sperm for reproduction
  40. endocrine system
    • Structures: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes
    • Function: Regulates metabolic activities of the body
  41. nervous system
    • Structures: brain, spinal cord, nerves
    • Function: Receives sensory information and coordinates the body's response
  42. special senses
    • Structure: eye
    • Function: vision
  43. otorhinolaryngology
    • Structure: ear
    • Function: hearing and balance
  44. anatomical position
    standing erect with arms at the sides of body, palms of the hands facing forward and eyes looking straight ahead. Legs are parallel with the feet and toes are pointing forward
  45. sagittal plane
    vertical plane that divides the body (or any of its parts) into right and left portions
  46. frontal plane
    divides the body into front and back portions
  47. transverse plane
    a crosswise plane that runs parallel to the ground
  48. longitudinal section
    produced by a lengthwise slice along the long axis of a structure
  49. cross-section view
    produced by a slice perpendicular to the long axis of the structure
  50. coronal plane
    another term for frontal plane
  51. horizontal plane
    another term for transverse plane
  52. cephalic region
    entire head
  53. cervical region
  54. trunk
  55. trunk is divided into what two regions?
    anterior and posterior
  56. anterior side consists of...
    thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, and pubic regions
  57. thoracic
  58. pubic
  59. posterior side consists of...
    dorsum, vertebral and gluteal regions
  60. dorsum
    the back
  61. gluteal
  62. what two extremities are attached to the trunk
    upper/brachial regions (arms) and lower/crural regions (legs)
Card Set
Medical Terminology 2013 Chapter 2
medical terms for chapter 2