Chapter 16.4.3

  1. I.                   Maria Winkelmann
    Craft organization
    a.      Craft organization of anatomyà opportunities for those who worked in family observatories as apprentices 
  2. I.                   Maria Winkelmann
    • a.      Most famous was Winkelmann
    •                                                               i.      Educated by father and uncle and trained from self-taught astronomer
    •                                                             ii.      Married Gottfried Kirch, Germany’s foremost astronomer, she was assistant at astronomical observatory in Berlin by the Academy of Science
  3. I.                   Maria Winkelmann
    • a.      Made contributions= undiscovered comet
    • b.      Corresponded with famous scientist Gottfried Leibnz (inventor of calculus independently of Newton); he praised her as a most learned woman 
  4. I.                   Maria Winkelmann
    Death of Husband
    a.      Husband diedà applied to be assistant astronomer, but denied by Berlin Academy, who didn’t want precedent of hiring women 
  5. I.                   Maria Winkelmann
    Rejection reflects
    •                                                               i.      Reflects obstacles women faced in being accepted in scientific work ,which was considered a male preserve
    • 1.      No woman allowed to join the Royal Society of England or French Academy of Sciences until 20th century
Card Set
Chapter 16.4.3
Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science