Cervical Vasculature

  1. 3 Branches of Aorta 
    • Left common artery 
    • left subclavian artery 
    • Brachiocephalic trunk 
  2. Arteries of Common Carotid Artery
    • O: brachicephalic trunk or Aortic arch
    • bifurcates into internal and external carotid arteries
  3. Internal Carotid Artery 
    Runs of common carotid artery 

    Runs superiorly deep to stylohyoid, digastric, & mandible

    Enters cranium through carotid canal of temporal bone

    No named cervical branches 
  4. Branches of External Carotid Artery
    • Superior thyroid artery
    • Ascending pharyngeal artery
    • lingual artery
    • facial Artery
    • occipital artery 
    • posterior auricular artery
    • maxillary artery
    • superficial temporal artery
  5. Superior thyroid artery
    descends anteriorly to supplu upper pole of thyroid gland and larynx
  6. Ascending pharyngeal artery
    ascending posteriorly to supply pharynx
  7. Lingual artery
    level of hyoid bone; anteriorly, runs behind suprahyoid & hypoglossus mm, to tongue
  8. Facial artery
    runs superior and anterior, behind digastric & stylohyoid; branches extensively to supply face
  9. occipital artery
    level of hyoid bone; runs superior and posterior; deep to posterior belly of digastric; divides to supply posterior scalp & SCM; migrane headaches
  10. Posterior auricular artery
    ascends posteriorly between external acoustic meatus & mastoid; supplies parotid gland, facial nerve & structure in the temporal bone, auricle, scalp
  11. 2 terminal branches of external carotid artery
    • maxillary artery
    • superficial temporal artery
  12. Maxillary artery
    runs deep to mandible supplies deep structures of face
  13. Superficial temporal artery
    runs superiorly & over zygomatic arch to supply scalp; smaller; migrane headaches, temporal arteries 
  14. Subclavian artery
    • O: Brachiocephalic trunk & Aortic arch
    • becomes axillary artery at lateral border at 1st rib
    • 3 sections: medial posterior lateral 
  15. branches of subclavian artery
    • thyrocervical trunk
    • internal thoracic artery
    • costocervical trunk
    • Internal thoracic artery
    • costocervical trunk

    Branches from medial to lateral
  16. Vertebral artery
    runs superiorly, enter foramen transversarium at C6, then across posterior arch of atlas, then merge to form basilar artery
  17. Thyrocervical trunk
    • runs superiorly then divides 
    • -inferior thyroid artery
    • -transverse cervical artery
    • -suprascapular artery
  18. Inferior thyroid artery
    • runs anterior to anterior scalene, turns medially supply inferior pole of thyroid gland;
    •  continuation of thyrocervical trunk
  19. Transverse cervical artery
    runs laterally across anterior scalene; divides into deep & superficial branches; supplies trapezius & scm
  20. Suprascapular artey 
    runs below & inferiorly to transverse cervical artery.; supplies supraspinatus, SCM, subclavian mm 
  21. Internal thoracic artery (internal mammary artery)
    runs inferiorly; supplies anterior chest wall, pecs, breast; used in coronary bypass surgery as a graft 
  22. Costocervical trunk
    arise from first part of subclavian artery on the right
  23. Thyroid ima Artery
    May arise (4-15% of people) from the brachiocephalic artery or aortic arch to supply thyroid gland 
  24. Carotid Sinus (baroreceptor)
    dilation of terminal part of common carotid artery or beginning of internal carotid arter, sensitive to blood pressure changes (CNIX)
  25. Carotid Body (chemoreceptor)
    Lies posterior to the point of bifurcation of common carotid artery, senses changes in blood carbon dioxide (oxygen) levels (CNIX, CNX)
  26. Veins 
    • Run deoxygenated blood back to the heart 
    • Via. 
    • -inferior Vena Cava - returns blood from below heart 
    • -superior vena Cava- returns blood from above the heart ( left and right Brachiocephalic veins)

    Internal jugular veins and subclavian veins drain into brachiocephalic veins 
  27. Internal jugular vein 
    • begins at jugular foramen, descends to join the subclavian vein to form brachiocephalic vein
    • lateral to internal and common carotid arteries within carotid sheath

    • Chief tributaries in neck
    • -common facial vein
    • -lingual vein
    • -superior thryoid vein
    • -middle thyroid vein 
  28. Subclavian vein 
    • it is an continuation of axillary vein
    • joins internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein 
    • angle of union is venous angle
  29. External Jugular vein
    formed behind angle of mandible by union of occipital vein & posterior auricular vein with the posterior branch of retromandibular vein

    crosses sternocleidomastoid to enter subclavian vein

    has 2 valves
  30. retromandibular vein
    formed by union of superficial temporal vein and maxillary vein 

    divides into posterior and anterior branches 
  31. common facial vein
    retro mandibular anterior branch  joins with facial vein 
  32. external jugular vein
    posterior branch of retromandibular joins posterior auricular vein 
  33. anterior jugular vein
    • drains submandibular and anterior neck regions
    • Descends near midline, runs posterior to sternal end of SCM to drain into the external jugular vein or subclavian vein 

    Common facial vein drains into anterior jugular vein via the communicating vein 
  34. drainage of thyroid gland
    • superior and middle thyroid veins into the jugular vein
    • inferior thyroid vein drains into right and left brachiocephalic vein 
Card Set
Cervical Vasculature
Structure 2B Cervical and gross anatomy and head anatomy, Cervical Vasculature