American History Final

  1. Nuremburg Trial
    • The trials that Nazis faced for their roles in the Holocaust.
    • The court was located at Nuremberg, Germany.
    • A total of 22 Nazis were tried for war crimes.
  2. Issei
    A Japanese who immigrated to the U.S. or Canada after 1907 and was not eligible until 1952 for citizenship
  3. Nisei
    A person of Japanese descent who was born in the US
  4. Sansei
    A third generation Japanese-American
  5. Third Reich
    Hitler's empire of blonde, blue-eyed, German-born.
  6. Yalta Conference
    • Key Goal to reach an agreement on what to do with the soon-to-be-conquered Germany. The three leaders agreed to dived the country into four sectors. The Americans, Soviets, British, and French would each occupy one of these sectors.
    • Those involved:
    • -FDR
    • -Churchill
    • -Stalin
  7. Nagasaki
    Second military use of the atomic bomb August 9, 1945. SW Japan.
  8. Internement
    The name for the forced relocation and confinement of Japanese-Americans to concentration camps.
  9. Cash and Carry
    (1939)The law that changed the Neutrality Act to allow countries at war to purchase American goods as long as they paid cash and picked up their orders in American ports.
  10. fascism
    A system of government that focuses on the good of the state rather than on the individual citizens.
  11. D-Day
    June 6, 1944, the first day of the Allied invasion of Normandy in WWII
  12. Manhattan Project
    The top secret program to build an atomic bomb during WWII.
  13. Auschwitz
    A town in Poland that was the site of Nazi concentration camp during WWII.
  14. Kristallnacht
    A German word for broken glass. IT is the event occurring on the nights of November 9-10 during which Hitler's Nazis encouraged Germans to riot against Jews, and nearly 100 Jews were killed.
  15. Blitzkrieg
    • A german word meaning "lightning war".
    • Strategy used, lots of tanks, and "big" war weapons.
  16. Nuremberg Laws
    They were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany which were introduced at the annual Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg.
  17. Munich Pact
    An agreement between Britain and Germany in 1938, under which Germany was allowed to extend its territory into parts of Czechoslovakia in which German-speaking peoples lived. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain negotiated on behalf of Britain, and Chancellor Adolf Hitler on behalf of Germany. Chamberlain returned to London proclaiming that the Munich Pact had secured “peace in our time.” The Germans invaded Poland less than a year later, and WWII began.
  18. Anti-Semitism
  19. Normandy
    Allied invasion in World War II began here June 6, 1944.
  20. Hiroshima
    A Japanese city on which the United States dropped the firstatomic bomb used in warfare, on August 6, 1945.
  21. Allies
    The alliance between Britain, France, and Russia.
  22. Final Solution
    The genocide of all the Jews.
  23. Pearl Harbor
    A harbor near Honolulu, on S Oahu, in Hawaii: surprise attack by Japan on the U.S. naval base and other military installations December 7, 1941.
  24. Non-Aggression Pact
    (August 27,1939) This agreement stated that the two countries - Germany and the Soviet Union - would not attack each other. If there were ever a problem between the two countries, it was to be handled amicably.
  25. Mein Kampf
    Hitler's book stating his plan for the Third Reich.
  26. Executive Order 9066
    It was issued during World War II by FDR on February 19, 1942 ordering Japanese Americans to internment camps.
  27. Holocaust
    (Literal-Wholly burning) The killing of millions of Jews and other minorities by Nazis during WWII.
  28. Trinity Test
    Site in New Mexico where the first Atomic bomb was tested. (US).
  29. Concentration Camps
    A detention site created for military or political purposed to fine, terrorize, an din some cases, kill civilians.
  30. Blacklisting
    When hollywood celebrities were put on lists where no one would hire them because they were accused of being communist.
  31. Communists
    People who seek the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all private property.
  32. Marshall Plan
    The plan for the reconstruction of Europe after WWII announced by the US secretary of State George C. Marshall.
  33. Brinkmanship
    A strategy that involves countries getting to the verge of war without actually going to war.
  34. Satellite Nations/Eastern Europe
    Buffer Zone for the USSR.
  35. Iron Curtain
    Term coined by Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist countries in the USSR from countries in Western Europe during the Cold War.
  36. McCarthyism
    The name critics gave to Joseph McCarthy's tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges. Often used in court for when someone is lying.
  37. U-2 Incident
    The 1960 U-2 incident occurred during the Cold War on May 1, 1960, during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and during the leadership of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union. The United States denied the planes mission (although it was obvious because it was heavily armed and contained spy equipment).
  38. Berlin Blockade/Airlift
    The Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under their control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.
  39. USSR
    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; Communist.
  40. Nationalists
    A member of a political group advocating or fighting for national independence, a strong national government, etc.
  41. Truman Doctrine
    President Truman's pledge to provide economic and military aid to countries threatened by communism.
  42. Warsaw Pact
    A military alliance established in 1955 of the Soviet-dominated countries of Eastern Europe.
  43. Cold War
    Non-violent feud.
  44. Cuban Missile Crisis
    Several days during which the US teetered on the brink of nuclear war with the USSR. Had a blockade around Cuba.
  45. Korean War
    The war, begun on June 25, 1950, between North Korea, aided by Communist China, and South Korea, aided by the United States and other United Nations members forming a United Nations armed force: truce signed July 27, 1953. When the US kept moving past the 38th parallel when it wasn't necessary.
  46. CIA
    Central Intelligence Agency. Spying.
  47. NATO
    The North-Atlantic treaty Organization. An international defense alliance formed in 1949.
  48. Containment
    Stopping the spread of communism.
  49. HUAC
    Housing un-American Committee. Pointed fingers at potential communists.
  50. March on Washington
    Martin Luther King Jr. gave his I have a dream speech. People gathered at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., in 1963.
  51. Brown v Board of Education
    Supreme Court ruled that separate schools for Blacks and whites violated the Constitution's guarantee of equal protection of the law.
  52. Voting Rights Act- 1965
    • -Suspended literacy tests and other devises used to exclude black voters
    • -authorized federal supervision of voter registration
    • -allowed federal workers to register voters
  53. Sit-ins
    A organized protest in which a group of people peacefully occupy and refuse to leave a premises.
  54. Little Rock 9
    • Nine African American Students who first integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.
    • -Ernest Green
    • -Elizabeth Eckford
    • -Jefferson Thomas
    • -Minnijean Brown Trickey
    • -Melba Pattillo Beals
  55. Black Panthers
    A group formed in 1966 inspired by the idea of Black Power that provided aid to black neighborhoods; often thought of as radical or violent.
  56. Plessy v Ferguson
    Supreme court ruling "separate but equal is just". Legalized segregation for the next 60 years.
  57. Jim Crow Laws
    Segregation laws in the public place.
  58. Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    Congressional resolution that in effect authorized military action in Southeast Asia.
  59. Geneva Accords
    • Signed July 1954. A cease fire was worked out. Vietnam was temporarily divided at the 17th parallel. Vietminh forces would control the northern part and the french would leave the country. A demilitarized zone along the 17th parallel was put into action to create a buffer zone.
    • General elections were scheduled for July 1956.
  60. Counterculture
    People who went against what was popular. Hippies were often into drugs. Drugs, Sex, Rock'n'Roll.
  61. Vietcong
    The National Liberation Front. Vietnamese Communists.
  62. Rolling Thunder
    LBJ's bombing campaign over North Vietnam in March 1965.
  63. Tet Offensive
    A series of massive coordinated attacks throughout South Vietnam.
  64. Dien Bien Phu
    The valley where the French soldiers made a last stand. Located in North Vietnam. Vietminh forces surrounded 15000 french troops. The French Commander clung to the hope of US rescue, but Ike had no intention of sending US soldiers into another war in Asia. French surrendered.
  65. Vietminh
    Vietnamese, Communist-led organization whose forces fought against the Japanese and esp. against the french in Indochina.
  66. Strategic Hamlet
    For sometime the governments of South Vietnam and the United States had been concerned about the influence of the NLF on the peasants. In an attempt to prevent this they moved the peasants into new villages in areas under the control of the South Vietnamese army.
  67. Vietnamization
    This involves turning over more of the fighting in Vietnam to the South Vietnamese while gradually bringing US ground troops home. Often described as "peace with honor".
  68. SDS
    Students for a Democratic Society. Vocal anti-war group.
  69. Agent Orange
    Spray that was used to kill trees so that Vietcong could be found. Long lasting affects. V. Harmful.
  70. Hawks/Doves
    • Doves were people who opposed the war.
    • Hawks were people who supported the war's goals.
  71. Domino Theory
    The belief that communism would spread to neighboring countries.
  72. War Powers Act
    This law reaffirms Congress's constitutional right to declare war. It sets a 60-day limit on the presidential commitment of US troops to foreign conflicts without a specific authorization by Congress to declare war.
  73. Pentagon Papers
    The New York Times published a collection of secret government documents that traced the history of US military involvement in Vietnam since the Truman years. Knows as the Pentagon papers, they revealed that the government officials had been misleading the American people about the war for years.
  74. My Lai
    In March 1968 US troops under the command of Lieutenant William Calley had entered the village of My Lai on a search and destroy mission to find Vietcong fighters. Although none were found, the soldiers killed at least 450 women, children and elderly men.
  75. Plumbers
    People who were hired by Nixon to fix "leaks" in the White House.
  76. Watergate
    Nixon hired men to steal papers from the democratic campaign whose "home base" was at the Watergate Hotel.
  77. Josef Stalin
    Totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union; he used violent crackdowns on his political enemies to strengthen his control. He led the USSR through WWII and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war.
  78. Adolf Hitler
    Totalitarian dictator of Germany; his aggressive invasion of European countries led to WWII. He believed in the supremacy of German Aryan race and was responsible for the mass murder of millions of Jews and others in the Holocaust.
  79. Winston Churchill
    British prime minister; he opposed the policy of appeasement and led Great Britain through WWII.
  80. Douglas MacArthur
    American general; he commanded US troops in the SW Pacific during WWII and administered Japan after the war ended. He later commanded UN forces at the start of the Korean War until he was removed by President Truman for wanting to again push past the 38th parallel.
  81. James Doolittle
    US Army officer; he won promotion for leading a bombing raid on Tokyo and other Japanese cities during WWII. Doolittle's Raid.
  82. Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Thirty-fourth president of the US; he led the Allied invasion of North Africa, the D-Day invasion of France, and commanded the Allied forces in Europe during WWII. He faced many Cold War challenges as President.
  83. Harry S. Truman
    Thirty-third president of the US; he became president upon the death of FDR. He led the US through the end of WWII and the beginning of the Cold War.
  84. The Rosenbergs
    A couple who was accused of being involved with leaking information about the Manhattan Project to the USSR. Julius Rosenberg was guilty, Ethel Rosenberg was not. Both were sentenced to death by the electric chair.
  85. Nikita Khrushchev
    Leader of the Soviet Union during the building of the Berlin wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis. He and President Kennedy signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, temporarily easing Cold War Tensions. The red phone.
  86. Mao Zedong
    He was a Chinese Communist leader. A founder of the Chinese Communist Party (1921) and proclaimed the People's Republic of China in 1949.
  87. Chiang Kai Shek
    Chinese army officer and political leader: president of the Republic of China 1950–75. NOT COMMUNIST.
  88. Joseph McCarthy
    US senator from Wisconsin who gained national fame in the last 1940s and early 1950s by aggressively charging that communists were working in the US government. He lost support in 1954 after making baseless attacks on US Army Veterans.
  89. Francis Gary Powers
    Powers was an American pilot whose CIA U-2 spy plane was shot down while violating Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960 U-2 incident.
  90. Charles Hamilton Houston
    Charles Hamilton Houston conceived of and led the legal strategy leading to the end of legalized racial segregation in the United States. Brown v Board of Education Topeka, Kansas.
  91. Malcolm X
    Well- known supporter of the Nation of ISlam and black leader, he spoke in support of black separatism, black pride, and the use of violence for self-protection. He was a prominent Black Muslim.
  92. Rosa Parks
    American civil rights activist; she was arrested in 1955 after refusing to give her seat on a public bus to a white man, as the law dictated. Her arrest led to a widespread bus boycott that was an important chapter in the civil rights movement.
  93. Stokely Carmichael
    Civil rights activist in the US; he was an important leader of the black nationalism movement in the 1960s.
  94. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    American civil rights leader; he was a celebrated and charismatic advocate of civil rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 60s. He was assassinated in 1968.
  95. Thurgood Marshall
    American jurist; he was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court.
  96. Richard M Nixon
    Thirty-Seventh president of the US and vice president under President Dwight D Eisenhower; he resigned form his second term because of the Watergate scandal.
  97. Ngo Dinh Diem
    South Vietnamese statesman: president of the Republic of South Vietnam
  98. Ho Chi Minh
    Vietnamese leader and first president of North Vietnam (1954-1969). His army was victorious in the French Indochina War (1946-1954), and he later led North Vietnam's struggle to defeat the U.S.-supported government in South Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh died before the reunification of Vietnam
  99. Robert S McNamara
    American businessman and public official; he was the US secretary of defense.
  100. Henry Kissinger
    German-born political scientist, he was an important foreign policy advisor during the 1960s and 1970s. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace for negotiating the ceasefire agreement that ended the Vietnam War.
  101. Lyndon B Johnson
    Thirty-sixth president of the United States; he took office after the assassination of JFK.
  102. John F Kennedy
    Thirty-fitfth president of the United States; he was the youngest person and the first Roman catholic to be elected president. He was assassinated in dallas, Texas in 1963.
  103. William Westmoreland
    American general; he was the commander of US ground troops in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
  104. Robert F Kennedy
    American politician; he was attorney general during his brother JFKs presidency and was assassinated during his bid for the 1968 Democratic Election.
Card Set
American History Final
American History Final