BIO chapter 4

  1. what are much smaller in prokaryotes compared to eukaryotes
    dimensions, surface area, and volume
  2. surface to volume ratio is... which affects what
    30 x larger in prokaryotes than eukaryotes which affects transport and metabolism
  3. ribosomes are
    the particles comprised of protein and RNA that are the site of protein synthesis
  4. cytoplasmic membrane is 
    thin sheet of lipid and protein that surrounds the cytoplasm and controls the flow of materials into and out of the cell pool
  5. glycocalyx is
    • polysaccharides that vary among bacteria in thickness, organization, and chemical composittion
    • protects cell
    • help adhere to environment
    • used to avoid phagocytosis
  6. flagellum are
    • used for bacterial locomotion
    • it is an electric motor
    • rotates rapidly
  7. 4 types of flagellar arrangements are
    • monotrichous - one end of cell
    • lophotrichous - one end but multiple strands
    • amphitrichous - one strand on each end
    • peritrichous - flagella are all over cell
  8. fimbriae are 
    smaller than flagella and are important for attachment and motility
  9. pili do what
    enable conjugation to occur,which is the transfer of DNA from on bacterial cell to another
  10. components of cell envelope from top to bottom are 
    • (outer membrane)
    • cell wall
    • cell membrane
  11. what is the cell wall made of 
    • Peptidoglycan
    • sugar backbone
    • present in most bacteria
    • provides strength
  12. what is the Periplasmic space
    space of air between the outer membrane and peptidoglycan and the peptidoglycan and the cell membrane
  13. Image Upload 2

  14. what are properties of gram positive cell
    • retain crystal violet dye and stain violet
    • thick muti-layered
    • NO periplasmic space, outer membrane, or LPS
    • produces exotoxins
    • susceptible to lysozyme, PCN
    • highly resistant to drying
  15. properties of gram negative cell
    • decolorized to take counter stain safranin stains red
    • thin/single layered
    • present periplasmic sapce, outer membrane
    • has high levels of LPS
    • produces endotoxins
    • highly susceptible to stretomycin
    • low resistance to drying
  16. what is an exotoxin
    • secreted by gram + (bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa)
    • disrupts normal cell metabolism or destroys cells
    • botulinum, diptheria
    • they are susceptible to antibodies but are so toxic that host may be dead before immune system mounts defense
    • most are destroyed by heat
  17. endotoxins are
    • released during lysis by gram 
    • stimulate fever and shock reactions
    • in the gram- membrane
  18. cell membrane is where
    • found just beneath the cell wall
    • where gram stain is absorbed
  19. nucleoid
    contains DNA within the cytoplasm
  20. prokarytoic cytoskeleton is
    the collective name for all structural filaments in prokaryotes
  21. inclusion bodies are
    • stainable proteins
    • usually for nutrient storage
  22. the nucleiod is
    • contains genetic material
    • single circular chromosome
    • floats around in cytoplasm
  23. haploid is
    a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes
  24. acid fast bacteria are
    • a modified gram + bacterium
    • contain mycolic acid (a wax)
    • includes pathogens
    • TB
    • leprosy
    • opportunistic wound infections
  25. mycolic acid
    what acid fast bacteria contain
  26. mycoplasma are
    • bacteria that lack a cell wall and are antibiotic reistant
    • no peptidoglycan wall
  27. two types of bacterial L-Forms
    • spheroplasts and portoplasts
    • bacteria under stressed conditions that lose their cell wall (peptidoglycan)
  28. Archaea are
    • prokaryotic cells
    • found in extreme environments
    • non-pathogens
  29. external structures of bacteria are
    • flagella 
    • pili
    • fimbrae
    • glycocalyx
    • capsule (slime layer) makes more virulent
  30. cell envelope parts include
    • (outer membrane) some have some don't
    • cell wall 
    • cell membrane
  31. Internal structure of bacteria are
    • cytoplasm
    • ribosomes
    • inclusion bodies
    • nuceoid/chromosomes
    • actin cytoskeleton
    • (endospores)
  32. monotrichous -
     one end of cell flagellar arragngement
  33. ampitrichous
    flagella on one end but multiple strands
  34. amphitrichous
    one flagella strand on each end
  35. peritrichous
    flagella all over the cell
  36. when do bacteria tumble and run
    • normally tumble - run - tumble
    • go towards or running away run
  37. which has a larger peptidoglycan layer
    gram + have big peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall
  38. what does decolorizer do to gram - bacteria
    it ruptures the cell membrane so that the safranin can stain the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall
  39. Areobe
    • only can survive in presence of oxygen
    • bacillus
  40. anaerobe
    • does not need oxygen to survive
    • clostridium
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BIO chapter 4
BIO chapter 4