Endocrine Hormones

  1. Epinephrine
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= suprarenal/adrenal

    Target= most cells

    Action= accelerates the utilization of cellular energy and the mobilization of energy reserves

    **from the adrenal because acts when in state of excitement, acts on most cells because need all to work together to run from the elephant, increases the use of cellular energy because running uses up a lot of energy and needs to mobilize energy reserves because going through energy so quickly**
  2. Norepinephrine
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= suprarenal/adrenal

    Target= most cells

    Action= increases: cardiac activity, BP. glycogen breakdown, blood glucose levels. Releases lipids from adipose tissue

    **running from a ninja this time; little more scary. Cardiac activity/BP raises because scared for life, glycogen increased because need extra energy, release lipids because they provide more energy for sustained running**
  3. Erythropoetin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= kidneys

    Target= bone marrow

    Action= stimulates the production of RBCs in the bone marrow, increases blood volume

    **EEK! it's from the kidneys! It stimulates the bone marrow because the body was like EEK, I need some more RBCs because my blood volume is low! Then EPO comes in and makes it all good in the hood again :)**
  4. Somatostatin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= pancreas

    Target= digestive epithelium

    Action= inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion, slows the rate of absorption and enzyme secretion along the digestive tract

    **I need some somatostatin STAT! A panda just ate a toxic panini! It comes from the PANcrease, and targets the digestive epithelium by stopping insulin/glucogon secretion (want to get that panini out of him!) and slows the rate of secretion/absorption because we don't want the panda to absorb or break down any more of the toxins**
  5. Progesterone
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= ovaries

    Target= uterus, mammary glands

    Action= prepares the uterus for implantation and the mammary glands for secretory activity

    **prOgesteron is from the Ovaries. It acts on the uterus because it tries to make the body ready for pregnancy (ie preparing for implantation), which is why there is progesterone in the Pill. It also targets the mammary glands for secretory activity because if there is a pregnancy, the woman obviously needs to be able to lactate (also, the 2 O's together look like 2 boobs)**
  6. Prolactin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= pituitary

    Target= mammory gland

    Action= stimulates mammary gland production and milk production

    *PIP! Pituitary gland makes prolactin! Then it targets the mammory gland because proLACTin has "Lact" in it, so think milk (lactose). In order to get the milk to the little babies, it stimulates the mammary gland & milk production**
  7. PIH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    = 'Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone'

    Gland= Hypothalamus

    Target= Pituitary

    Action= inhibits prolactin production

    **targets the pituitary, because that's where the prolactin is made. Since it doesn't come from the pituitary, it has to come from the hypothalamus! And, obviously, it inhibits prolactin production**
  8. Oxytocin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= pituitary

    Target= uterine smooth muscle and mammary gland

    Action= stimulates contractions during labor and the ejection of milk

    **has the same basic info as prolactin, just starts to act later on (during labor and delivery)**
  9. TSH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • TSH= Thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • Gland= pituitary

    Target= thyroid

    Action= triggers the release of thyroid hormones

    **acts on the thyroid, so it has to come from the pituitary. And, obviously, it triggers the release of thyroid hormones**
  10. TRH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    TRH= throtropin-releasing hormone

    Gland= hypothalamus

    Target= pituitary

    Action= releases TSH

    **targets the pituitary because that's were TSH is made and it releases the TSH because they're brothers and nice to each other. It's from the Hypothalaus because it's a Huge job to release the TSH from the evil pituitary gland, but it braves the danger to save it's buddy from the pit's evil clutches**
  11. Thyroid hormone
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= thyroid

    Target= most cells

    Action: activates genes for the synthesis of enzymes used in glycolysis & ATP production, increases the rate of O2 consumption

    **obviously it's from the thyoid. It acts on most cells because activating genes is something that most cells need, considering that glycolysis and ATP production are pretty important. It also increases the rate of O2 consumption because as you need more ATP/glucose, you are usually working hard and therefor need to breathe more**
  12. Testosterone
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= interstitial cells

    Target= CNS structures

    Action= influences sexual behaviors

    **TIC= testosterone is from intersitial cells. Targets CNS structures because sexual behaviors are influenced by how we think (ie you could have all the testosterone in the world, but if you don't want to have sex before marriage you can think about it and stop yourself from having it)**
  13. Insulin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= pancreas

    Target= liver

    Action= facilitates uptake of glucose by target cells; stimulates the storage of lipids

    **comes from the pancreas because that's what regulates blood sugar. Acts on the liver because that processes stuff and it helps the cells to take glucose out of the bloodsteam. It stims the storage of lipids because the lipids aren't needed for energy immediately (why people do the Atkin's diet)
  14. Glucagon
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland: pancreas

    Target: liver, adipose tissue

    Action: mobilizes lipid reserves, promotes glucose synthesis/glucogen breakdown, increases blood sugar glucose concentration

    **it's from the pancreas because it has to do with sugar in the blood stream. It targets the liver/ adipose tissue because those are major areas where glucose is stored. It increases mobilization of lipid reserves/glycolysis because it wants to increase blood glucose concentration.**
  15. Aldosterone
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    Gland= suprarenal

    Target= kidneys

    Action= increases renal absorption of salt and water (decreases excretion), accelerates urinary loss of potassium

    **Al is SUPer, SUPer (from the suprarenal) thirsty and drinks 3 powerades. His kidneys (the target) absorb a lot of the salt and water, but he needs to pee a LOT because Aldosteron accelerates the urinary loss of potassium (because sodium and potassium are fraternal twins and are always fighting)**
  16. LH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    LH= luteinizing hormone

    Gland= pituitary

    Target= ovaries/testes

    Action: (F) induces ovulation and secretes estrogen/progesterone (M) production of androgens

    **LH is from the pituitary because being on your periods is the pits, and it affects both men and woman (ovaries/testes). It induces ovulation (period, well kinda) and secretes estrogen/progesterone in woman (what is in BC) and androgens in men (periods affect men and woman differently)**
  17. Estrogen
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland: ovaries
    • Target: most cells
    • Action: support follicle maturation, female 2ndary sex characteristics

    **Erica has lots of estrogen! It comes from the ovaries (my happy place) and targets most cells, because I am mostly happy and motherly. It supports follicle maturation (mothers are very mature) and female secondary sex characterics (ie big boobs!)**
  18. Melatonin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland- pineal gland
    • Target- nervous system
    • Action- inhibits reproductive function, protects against damage by free radicals, sets ciradian rhythems

    **melanie PINEs (gland-pineal) for dan a lot. She really likes him, but he makes her feel really NERVOUS (targets nervous system), which makes her so nervous that she snorts, which severely inhibits her reproductive function. However, since she isn't getting any, she has set ciradian rhythems because she goes to bed at the same time every night at 8pm, which protects her against free radicals who just got out of jail for waving peace signs in front of cars during rush hour traffic and caused a major pile-up on I-93.
  19. FSH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • FSH= follicle-stimulating hormone
    • Gland- pituitary
    • Target- testes/ovaries
    • Action- (F) promote follicle development & estrogen secretion (M) stimulates the nurse cells

    **this is a lot like LH....you want to be a nurse, just suck it up and memorize it!**
  20. Growth Hormone
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland= pituitary
    • Target= most cells
    • Action= stimulates cell growth/replication by accelerating protein synthesis

    **Growth hormone comes from pituitary usually (duh!). It acts on most cells, well, because most cells need to grow. It also helps stimulate replication of cells because when you're growing you need a way to make new cells, and replication is a good way to do that. They do this by protein synthesis, which is why babies need so much milk when they're growing (protein)**
  21. GHRH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • GHRH= growth-hormone releasing hormone
    • Gland= hypothalamus
    • Target= pituitary
    • Action= releases growth hormone

    **this one is fairly obvious. It's from the hypothalamus (as is GnRH) and targets the pituitary because that's where the growth hormone is made. And as it's name indicates, it obviously releases growth hormone**
  22. GnRH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • GnRH= gonadotropin releasing hormone
    • Gland= hypothalamus
    • Target= gonads
    • Action= produces gonadotropins FSH/LH

    **GnRH comes from hypothalamus, as does GHRH. It's GONADotripin RH, so obviously it targets the GONADS and it produces the GONADOTROPINS (LH/LSH)**
  23. Glucucorticoids
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland= suprarenal
    • Target= most cells
    • Action= release amino acids from skeletal muscle & lipids from adipose tissues; promotes liver formation

    **only one with NO hints**
  24. Leptin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland= adipose tissues
    • Target= hypothalamus
    • Action= suppression of appetite

    **Lee loves leptin. Once, he was over weight and had a lot of ADIPOSE TISSUE (gland). Then, he lost a lot of weight and become underweight (hypo, for hypothalamus) because his appetite was suppressed (action) by leptin. Now he's underweight, but getting lottsa girls in this beauty-oriented society**
  25. Angiotensin
    (Gland, Target, Action)

    I miss it when a tough homework assignment was drawing a picture of my family(

    • Gland= liver
    • Target= adrenal cortex (brain)
    • Action= stimulates the secretion of aldosterone/ADH

    **Angie drinks a lot, so it affects her liver (gland). The excess drinking also affects her adrenal cortex (target- brain) and it stimulates aldosterone/ADH because she needs to constantly fix her fluid levels since she is drinking and peeing so much**
  26. ACTH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • ACTH= adenocorticotropic hormone
    • Gland= pituitary
    • Target= suprarenal
    • Function= stimulates the release of glucocorticoids

    **ACTH from the pituitary because AC/DC is the pits. Targets the suprarenal because that's where glucocorticoids (steriod hormones) are made and releases them**
  27. CRH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    CRH= corticotropin-releasing hormone

    • Gland= hypothalamus
    • Target= pituitary
    • Action= releases ACTH

    **CRH is from the hypothalamus because you CRy when you are HYPOhappy (aka not happy enough). It targets the pituitary because that's where the ACTH is made and it help to release the ACTH because it's helpful to release things when you are sad.**
  28. ADH
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    ADH= antidiuretic hormone

    • Gland= pituitary
    • Target= kidney
    • Action= decreases water lost by kidneys and increases BP/blood volume

    **ADH from pit because it acts on the kidney. Targets the kidney because the kidney is in charge of filtering things and figure out what gets absorbed and how much water is excreted**
  29. Natriuretic Peptides
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland= heart
    • Target= kidneys
    • Action= opposes angiotensin; promotes H2O/NA+ excretion @ the kidneys

    **mother nature loves everything, so from the heart. It works in the kidneys for water/sodium balance (major part of what keeps living creatures alive) and opposes angiotensin because it doesn't like drinking that kills so many people.**
  30. Calcitonin
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland- thyroid
    • Target- kidneys, bone
    • Actions- aids in the regulation of Ca2+ in blood

    **Calcitonin come from the thyroid (CT) and targets the bones because that's where calcium is stored and the kidneys to stop the excretion of calcium. Both of these targets help to regulate the calcium levels in the blood.**
  31. Parathyroid Hormone
    (Gland, Target, Action)
    • Gland- parathyroid
    • Target- bone, kidneys
    • Action- increases Ca2+ concentrations in bodily fluids

    **Parathyroid hormone comes from the parathyroid (obviously). Targets the bone/kidneys for the same reason as Calcitonin, except it increases the Ca concentrations instead of just regulating them**
Card Set
Endocrine Hormones
Anatomy 508