1. What type of wood was used in the English Renaissance
    All oak
  2. When was half timber used
    English Renaissance
  3. When was waddle and dab used
    English Renaissance
  4. What is waddle and dab?
    Thick clay mixed with straw- used as construction and it was the white in- between of the half timber
  5. When did they begin incorporating proportion in interior design?
    English Renaissance
  6. When was there strong symmetry in the exterior of architecture?
  7. When does the architecture become rectilinear?
  8. When did they start to consider comfort?
  9. Oriel
    Raised up window that projects out

  10. Corbel
    Support for oriel window

  11. What are the parts of a bay window?
    oriel and corbel
  12. When were the floor joyces from above exposed?
  13. True or False

    Elizabethan homes were of half timber construction
  14. When did they decide to add ornamentation to the ceiling?
  15. What is strapwork?
    the same ornamentation as arabesque (would be on pilasters, pannels, and furniture)
  16. When was strapwork popular?
  17. When did they try to add fringe to furniture?
  18. Lunets
    half circle classical design
  19. What type of design was geometrical, not classical?
  20. If there is a never ending circle in the ornamentation, what type of ornament is it?
    Classical ornamentation
  21. What was the leg of choice for Elizabethan?
    Bulbous leg
  22. What does 'Bulbous' leg mean?
    it means heavy turned leg
  23. What is gradooning?
    convex ornamentation on bulbous legs

    the "cup" was carved to imitate the silver cup
  24. The acanthus leaves were of what period?
    Greko-Roman leaves
  25. What does Vernacular mean?
    native, regional, local

    it sticks around because it is the common design for a long time
  26. What was the vernacular design?

    Vernacular- it sticks around because it is the common design for a long time
  27. What was the Tudor architecture?
    Half timber construction (vertical, horizontal, angled beams that are used for bracing)

    Thach roof (Grasses that are tied together and cut at the bottom -would last 30-40 years)
  28. What is half timber construction?
    vertical, horizontal, angled beams that are used for bracing
  29. What is a thach roof?
    Grasses that are tied together and cut at the bottom -would last 30-40 years
  30. When was the furniture massive in scale?
    English Renaissance
  31. What type of ornament was used for Tudor?
  32. What period was robust and exhuberant?
  33. What best describes Elizabethan design?
    It was robust and exhuberant
  34. When did living rooms and dining rooms become popular?
  35. When did they start to get patterned ceilings?
  36. When did you start to see larger windows?
  37. When was strapwork used?
    Tudor !!!
  38. How did they start to cover up the ceiling?
    with plaster in the Elizabethan period
  39. By the end of the _____ period, Renaissance ornament is used without an understanding of proportion or restraint.
  40. What period felt that more ornament was better?
  41. What was the problem with 'more ornament is better'?
    • 1- it lacks classical refinement
    • 2- proportion= off; the ornamentation was ill proportioned to the furniture
  42. Jacobean is also known as what?
    High Renaissance
  43. High Renaissance is also known as what?
  44. What did English Colonization do?
    It further increased trade which made the merchant class even wealthier.
  45. Which period was very prosperous (good for the economy)?
  46. Who was England's first known architect?
    Indigo Jones
  47. Who is Indigo Jones?
    England's first known architect

    Toured Italy and brought back Pilladio's influence to England. He takes the proportion that Pilladio came up with and brings correctness and consistency.
  48. Who is Pilladio?
    He is very aware and understood proportion
  49. The Exhuberant Elizabethan style of ornament yields to _____.
    Careful classical arrangement
  50. When did they start to make the bulbous leg less pronounced?
  51. What type of style does the Hampton Court have?
    It was the Gothic Tudor plus Baroque addition
  52. What were William and Mary mostly known for?
    their furniture
  53. Why was Asian design an interest?
    It was evident because of trading- China specifically
  54. What period was opulent and rich?
    William and Mary
  55. Parquetry
    William and Mary

    Geometric pattern
  56. Marquetry
    William and Mary

    Organic design (movement, flowers)
  57. What was carved into wood drawers in William and Mary's furniture?
    Parquerty, Marquetry, and Crossbanding
  58. Crossbanding
    William and Mary

    with a piece of Veneer they would run the grain perpendicular to the outside frame
  59. French polish
    wax; shiny

    william and mary
  60. Chinoiserie
    asian motif

    popular under william and mary because they are importing lots of items from china.
  61. Japanning
    laqueor finish

    the finishing technique to the furniture

    William and Mary
  62. What period was Queen Anne associated with?
    English Baroque
  63. What was Queen Anne most noted for?
    Her furniture
  64. What has a 180 ft. gallery?
    Blenheim Palace
  65. What was the wood of choice for the Baroque period?
  66. What furniture was curvilinear?
    Queen Anne
  67. What furniture had a very feminine feel to it?
    Queen Anne
  68. What characteristics describe Queen Anne's furniture?
    Curvilinear with a feminine feel to it
  69. When were splat backs introduced?
    Queen Anne's Baroque period
  70. Cabriole
    Leg of choice for Queen Anne
  71. What was Queen Anne's leg of choice
  72. What is a splat?
    the center piece of wood going down the back

    it gets more and more elaborate- begins to get carved and pierced
  73. When was a tea table introduced?
    Queen Anne Baroque

    (was placed between two winged chairs)
  74. What opens the doors to the English Neoclassical Period?
    Democratic Greece and Republic Rome (They are models to them for their architectural style).
  75. What are some qualities of Georgian Architecture?
    • Strong symmetry
    • Most homes had Hip Roof
    • Pediment that typically projects forward
    • Chimney= always symmetrical
    • Pediment and roof lines= heavy molding
    • Window of choice= double hung
    • Georgian ornamentation= Clasical (less than baroque, more than neoclassical)
    • Chipendale's traditional English furniture was used
  76. What is a hip roof?
    it is in Georgian Architecture and it is a roof that may come to a point
  77. What period if Georgian Architecture from?
    English Neoclassical
  78. Thomas Chipendale
    • One of the first cabinet makers to publish a book
    • Designed many styles of furniture
    • Best known for his English furniture which worked best in Georgian homes
  79. What furniture worked best in Georgian homes?
    Thomas Chipendale's
  80. Describe Chipendale's furniture
    He designed his furniture for proportion, scale and ornament

    He also did French Rococo, Chinese, and last Gothic (& traditional English)
  81. What is caning?
    very tightly woven grass
  82. What period used H or X shaped stretchers?
  83. What was the leg of choice for William and Mary?
    Inverted cup leg
  84. What period used the inverted cup leg as the leg of choice?
    William and Mary
  85. Rail
    Horizontal members
  86. Stile
    Vertical members
  87. When was crossbanding used?

    William and Mary?
  88. Veneering
    very thin sheets of wood

    William and Mary*
  89. Who is known for the double hump in a secretary?
    Queen Anne
  90. The Windsor chair is also known as what?
    Pub chair

    (brought back the stretcher due to popular use)
  91. The Pub chair is also known as what?
    The Windsor chair

    (brought back the stretcher due to popular use
  92. Who brings the Baroque to England?
    Sir Christopher Wren
  93. Dormer
    = windows in the roofline

  94. What was the wood of choice for the Neoclassical period?
  95. What was the traditional English leg used by Chipendale?
    Ball and Claw foot with French- Inspired details
  96. When was the block foot used?
    Neoclassical- Chippendale
  97. What was the leg of choice for the Chinese and Gothic?
    Marlborough Legs (just a straight leg)
  98. What period used the Marlborough leg?
    Chinese and Gothic
  99. Who used a plain splat?
    Queen Anne
  100. Who used a pierced and carved splat?
  101. Who developed the first sofa?
  102. Who used more ornamentation, Chippendale or Queen Anne?
  103. Who were the Adam Brothers?
    They were architects, not cabinet makers.

    • Pallatio (an architect) went to Rome and did scaled drawings of Roman rooms.
    • The Adam brothers met him and saw his drawings
    • The brothers produced a design firm in London
    • Together they created Holistic design (complete unity of a design)
    • They used the concept of the central block and added symmetrical wings
  104. Who designed oval and round rooms?
    The Adam brothers
  105. Who designed rooms with a ceiling that was the same as the flooring design?
    The Adam Brothers
  106. Who brought back the concept of an Apse?
    The Adam Brothers
  107. Light and airy design is describing whose ornament?
    The Adam Brothers
  108. Hepplewhite
    Furniture maker

  109. What period are the Adam Brothers from?
  110. When was Japanning used?
  111. Fluting
    concave ornamentation
  112. Reeding
    Convex ornamentation
  113. What period had chair backs that were shield, heart and oval shaped?
    Hepplewhite- Neoclassical
  114. When was spade foot used?
    Hepplewhite and Sheraton neoclassical
  115. Stringing
    Double line around drawers- means one of the pieces is a raised wood.

    Hepplewhite- Neoclassical
  116. Sevres porcelain
    clay that is painted with flowers and other details
  117. Sheraton Style
    • excellent proportion; expecially in the use of ornamentation,
    • created multipurpose pieces
  118. What period has straight, square, rectangular backs?
    Sheraton - Neoclassical
  119. What period has the Lyre, Vase/Urn, and Banister back?
    Sheraton- Neoclassical
  120. What was the second phase of the Neoclassical period called?
  121. Regency
    The second phase of the Neoclassical revival
  122. How was the architecture in the regency style?
    More Greek

    The Greek Architecture balances the Roman from the Adam Brothers
Card Set
Eng architecture