Micro Lab Terminology - Enis

  1. Morphology
    Shapes & Arrangements
  2. Parfocal
    Two objective lenses that when in focus, the lens can be changed without completely losing focus.
  3. Resolution (Resolving Power)
    Ability to distinguish between two objects close together.
  4. Working Distance
    Distance between the front lens and the coverslip when in focus.
  5. Contaminent
    Unwanted microorganism.
  6. Emulsify
    Process of mixing to give a smooth, even suspension.
  7. Heat fix
    Helps retain cells on slide throughout staining process
  8. Chromophore
    Colored portion of the dye
  9. Simple stain
    Application of a single staining application
  10. Basic Stain
    Stain that gives up an -OH (hydroxyl) ion, leaving a positive charge on the chromophore.
  11. Acidic Stain (Not the acid-fast stain)
    Give up a hydrogen ion, leaving a negative charge on the chromophore
  12. Primary Stain
    1st stain applied. Stains everything
  13. Differential stain
    More than one stain. Different color/different structure.
  14. Mordant
    Substance that binds to a dye and makes it less soluble.
  15. Decolorizer (destaining solution)
    Selectively extracts the primary dye from one type of cell or cell structure and allows one to distinguish between different cell types and /or structures.
  16. Counter stain
    Provides a contrasting color to the primary stain.
  17. Endospore
    Environmentally resistant structure produced by the transformation of a vegetative cell of the gram positive genera Bacillus or Clostridium - dormant resting state
  18. Forespore
    Structure in which endospores produce results from binary fission
  19. Free spores
    Spores that have been released following sporulation.
  20. Germination
    Endospore transitions to vegetable cell. Process in which spore comes out of hibernation.
  21. Sporulation (Sporogenesis)
    Production of spore formation of endospores.
  22. Spore Location (Central Endospore)
    Found in middle of cell.
  23. Spore Location (Subterminal Endospore)
    Found between poles and center of cell.
  24. Spore location (Terminal Endospore)
    Found at poles of cell.
  25. Vegetative cell
    Metabolically active, capable of growth and reproduction.
  26. BCG
    Bacillus Calmette Gurin - disarmed bovine pathogen.
  27. Mycolic acids
    Long fatty acids found in cell walls of the mycolata taxon (acid fast organism).
  28. Tubercle
    Swelling characteristic lesion of TB.
  29. Litmus Milk
    Complex media containing Azolitmin (pH indicator) and skim milk. Used primarily to differentiate members within the genus Clostridium.
  30. Nigrosin
    Negative charged stain, acid dye, black in color.
  31. Negative stain (Not gram negative stain)
    Used to determine morphology and cellular arangement in bacteria that are too delicate to withstand heat fixing. Background is stained and cell or subject of interest is clear.
  32. Positive Stain (Not gram positive stain)
    Cell or subject of interest is stained and the background is clear.
  33. Synthetic (defined) media
    Culture medium whose exact chemical composistion is known.
  34. Complex Media
    Differs slightly from batch to batch, one chemically undefinable substance.
  35. All purpose growth media
    Routinely used to culture bacteria. Complex media-general purpose-wide range TSA
  36. Enrichment media
    Contains chemicals and nutrients that enhance the growth of the desired organism. Gen medium that has had something added to it.
  37. Selective media
    Contains chemicals that inhibit the growth of unwanted bacteria without inhibiting the growth of the desired organism.
  38. Differential media
    Contains nutrients and additives that allow a particular type of organism to be easily identified by visible changes on the media.
  39. Bacteriostatic
    Antimicrobial agent or condition that halts bacterial growth but does not kill the cell.
  40. Bacteriocidal
    Substance that kills bacteria and ideally nothing else.
  41. Seeded bacterial lawn
    Evenly distributing culture over entire agar. Continuous cover on surface of growth medium.
  42. Zone of inhibition
    Clear area around the ATB disk that occurs from performing the Kirby-Bauer method. Occurs after incubation.
  43. MIC
    • Minimum inhibitory concentration - minimum concentration of drug that will inhibit growth.
    • Advantage - Easy to prepare and execute. Can be done on small scale. Test times can be kept low. Gives concentration of dosage
    • Disadvantage - Minor parameters have major impact. 7-10 tubes per ATB
  44. Synergistic effect
    Biologic response to multiple substances where one substance enhances the effect of another substance working together to produce effect greater than the sum of individual effects.
  45. ATCC
    American Type Culture Collection - Repository for living organisms.
  46. MRSA
    Methacilin resistant staph
  47. VRE
    Vanco resistant entrococci
  48. Agar
    Polymer made of sugar galactose. Used as culture medium and is also thickener for soups and sauces.
  49. Agar deep (Deep)
    Agar in test tube. Needle is used to innoculate the agar by pushing cells underneath the agar.
  50. Agar Plate (Plate)
    Petri dishes that contain agar for growing microorganisms innoculate. Isolate and study.
  51. Agar Slant (Slant)
    Same agar preparation except agar allowed to cool in slanted position to create more surface area. For studying surface microorganisms.
  52. Aseptic technique
    Keeping cultures free from contaminants.
  53. Autoclave
    Device to sterilize objects and chemicals that can tolerate moist heat.
  54. Broth
    Liquid nutrient rich medium used for cultivating microorganisms.
  55. Incinerator
    Any device used to burn solid or wastes as a method of disposal.
  56. Inoculating (transfer) loop
    Tool used to smear, streak or take an inoculum from a culture of microorganisms.
  57. Inoculation (transfer) needle
    Used to transfer bacteria.
  58. Isolated Colony
    Result of method of isolation in which a single type of organism is able to be studied. Separated from other groups.
  59. Nutrients
    Any chemical such as carbon, hydrogen, etc.
  60. Petri dish
    Dish filled with solid medium (agar) used in culturing microorganisms.
  61. Sterilization
    Iradication of all organisms including bacterial endospores and viruses although not prions in or on an object.
  62. Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA)
    Used for Isolating and cultivating difficult microorganisms. General growth, all purpose
  63. MacConkey Agar with Crystal violet
    Used to isolate and differentiate members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Based on the ability to ferment lactose. Selective media - inhibits growth of gram positive bacteria due to presence of Crystal violet and bile salts. Gram negative bacteria grow well. Is differential - separates lactose fermentors from the non-lactose fermentors because lactose fermentors digest medias lactose and turns colony pink/red. Turns pH acidic.
  64. MSA (Mannitol Salts Agar)
    Isolation and differentiation of pathogenic staphylococci, principally S. Aureus. Normally used in clinical environment. Selective - Sodium chloride; most other bacteria can't survive at this level of salinity. 7.5% sodium concentration. Staphylococci. Differential - Staph. aureus - sugar mannitol, pH indicator, phenyl red, pathogenic staph that can ferment mannitol will cause phenyl red to turn yellow. Staph can ferment mannitol. Most non-pathogenic staph cannot.
  65. Dnase Agar
    Used to test for DNase; present in most Serratia and some Staphylococcus species. Selective - should not be, however sometimes dyes in media (methyl green; toluidine blue) are non-specifically inhibitory. Differential - DNA added to media. Hydrolysis is detected after incubation by clearing around streak following addition of HCL (or by clearing of the dyes methyl green or toluidine blue in media)
  66. EMB: Eosin Methylene Blue Agar
    Isolation of fecal coliforms (GI organism). Selective - For gram negative. inhibits for gram positive. Methylene blue, ESY. Differential - Color indicator distinguishes between ferment lactose and those that don't. Org. that ferment have nucleated colonies. Metallic green sheen-rapid fermentation- true positive.
  67. Blood Agar
    Isolation and cultivation of many types of fastidious bacteria. Used to differentiate bacteria based on hemolytic char. especially within Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus. All purpose; Enrichment - Sheep's blood; Differential- Alpha- partial destruction of RBC's, produces a greenish discoloration of agar around colonies. Beta - complete destruction of RBC's and hemoglobin, results in a clearing of the medium around colonies; Gamma - actually non-hemolysis appears as simple growth. No change to medium.
  68. Lowenstein-Jensen Media
    Culture of myco bacterium, TB, Isolation; Enrichment - egg white primary base; Selective - Contains malachi green gram positive inhibitor PCN
  69. Thymine Dimers - definition, formation and contribution to UV damage
    Cells esposed to sunlight (radiant energy) can damage DNA because UV radiation causes covalent bonds between adjacent thymines. DNA cannot be replicated or transcribed. Eject electrons - excess excitation. Creates point substitution. Adj. thymines abnormally bound together.
  70. Dark repair
    • Does not require visible light
    • Enzyme excises the damaged segment from a single strand of DNA. The excised nucleotides are replaced by DNA polymerase 1. DNA ligase seals look for appropriate pairing. 99% excision.
  71. Light repair
    • DNA photolyase (co-factor-folic acid), activated by light, can break the covalent bonds between thymine.
    • Requires visible light-blue wavelengths.
    • Photoreactivation
  72. Kirby-Bauer
    • Susceptibility
    • Advantage-Allows you to determine most effective ATB to treat infectious disease. Fast, easy, cheap.
    • Disadvantage - Takes 24 hours to run. Doesnt indicate dose necessary to kill or inhibit pathogen
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Micro Lab Terminology - Enis
Terms for Lab Quiz - Enis