the study of the structure of the body. Also, the study of the individual parts of the body, and their relationships between one another
the study of the function of the organism. Specifically, the study of the body functions.
Name 3 ways to study anatomy and physiology
- 1. Palpation
- 2. Auscultation
- 3. Percussion
touching body surfaces with hands
listening to body sounds
tapping on body surfaces and listening to echoes
What is the scientific method?
A systematic approach to discovery.
Describe the steps of the scientific method
- 1. observations and previous experiments
- 2. propose hypothesis
- 3. design experiment
- 4. collect and analyze data
- 5. determine whether data are biased (if yes, redesign experiment)
- 6. If not biased, refine hypothesis
- 7. repeat experiments (if results not repeatable, propose alternate hypothesis, repeat steps)
- 8. If results consistent, accept as theory.
- 9. If unusually high level of confidence, accept as law
List in order of complexity the levels of organization of the body
- 1. chemicals
- 2. Cellular
- 3. Tissues (4 types)
- 4. Organ
- 5. Organ system
- 6. Organism
Define chemical level
most basic, simple level. Atoms are organized into large molecules. Proteins, lipids, nucleic acid, etc.
Define cellular level
Large molecules organize into cells.
the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.
Define Tissue level
a group of similarly specialized cells that perform some function
define organ level
structure made up of 2 or more tissue types.
define organ system
a collection of organs working together for some function
define organism level
life form. example: humans, containing 11 organ systems.
what is the anatomical position?
the standard, directional position for discussion of the human body. Standing upright with the arms at the sides and palms facing forward. The head and feet also face forward.
why is the anatomical position important?
its a reference point that gives meaning to the directional terms used to describe the body parts and regions.
what are the 2 major divisions of the body?
axial and appendicular
what does the axial division cover?
head, neck, and torso
what does the appendicular division cover?
the upper and lower limbs
maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite environmental variation. If stability not contained, disease will occur.