Intro to the structure and function of the body

  1. Define anatomy
    the study of the structure of the body. Also, the study of the individual parts of the body, and their relationships between one another
  2. Define physiology
    the study of the function of the organism.  Specifically, the study of the body functions.
  3. Name 3 ways to study anatomy and physiology
    • 1. Palpation
    • 2. Auscultation
    • 3. Percussion
  4. Define palpation
    touching body surfaces with hands
  5. define auscultation
    listening to body sounds
  6. define percussion
    tapping on body surfaces and listening to echoes
  7. What is the scientific method?
    A systematic approach to discovery.
  8. Describe the steps of the scientific method
    • 1. observations and previous experiments
    • 2. propose hypothesis
    • 3. design experiment
    • 4. collect and analyze data
    • 5. determine whether data are biased (if yes, redesign experiment)
    • 6. If not biased, refine hypothesis
    • 7. repeat experiments (if results not repeatable, propose alternate hypothesis, repeat steps)
    • 8. If results consistent, accept as theory.
    • 9. If unusually high level of confidence, accept as law
  9. List in order of complexity the levels of organization of the body
    • 1. chemicals
    • 2. Cellular
    • 3. Tissues (4 types)
    • 4. Organ
    • 5. Organ system
    • 6. Organism
  10. Define chemical level
    most basic, simple level.  Atoms are organized into large molecules. Proteins, lipids, nucleic acid, etc.
  11. Define cellular level
    Large molecules organize into cells.
  12. Define cells
    the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.
  13. Define Tissue level
    a group of similarly specialized cells that perform some function
  14. define organ level
    structure made up of 2 or more tissue types.
  15. define organ system
    a collection of organs working together for some function
  16. define organism level
    life form.  example: humans, containing 11 organ systems.
  17. what is the anatomical position?
    the standard, directional position for discussion of the human body.  Standing upright with the arms at the sides and palms facing forward.  The head and feet also face forward.
  18. why is the anatomical position important?
    its a reference point that gives meaning to the directional terms used to describe the body parts and regions.
  19. what are the 2 major divisions of the body?
    axial and appendicular
  20. what does the axial division cover?
    head, neck, and torso
  21. what does the appendicular division cover?
    the upper and lower limbs
  22. Define homeostasis
    maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite environmental variation.  If stability not contained, disease will occur.
Card Set
Intro to the structure and function of the body
Biology Ch 1 questions