1. Pyruvate is the direct product of which two enzymes?
D. pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase*(2011)
2. Which compound consumed during the production of pyruvate from glucose must be regenerated for glycolysis to continue uninterrupted?
E. NAD+* (2011)
3. The direct product of the reaction of phosphorylase with glycogen is which of the following?
B. glucose-1-P* (2011)
4. Decreased levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate will cause which of the following to occur?
D. decrease in glycolysis and an increase in gluconeogenesis* (2011)
5. Transport of glucose into which of the following tissues is insulin-dependent?
B. muscle* (2011)
6. The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase is the last step in which of the following pathways?
E. glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis* (2011)
7. Which of the following enzymes is the overall rate-limiting enzyme of the pathway in which it is active?
E. fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase* (2011)
8. Total absorption of glucose from the renal filtrate into the kidney requires which of the following?
B. transport of sodium ions* (2011)
9. A vast amount of ATP is produced daily by our bodies to meet the physiological demands of cells. Which of the following statements about ATP is correct?
B. Energy released by hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to endergonic chemical Reactions* (2011)
10. Conditions of low O2 (hypoxia) will result in which of the following?
B. decreased ATP* (2011)
11. In the electron transport chain, how many complexes pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane?
C. three* (2011)
12. Which of the following statements defines the chemiosmotic hypothesis?
B. pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space creates a concentration difference of protons and produces energy to drivethe synthesis of ATP* (2011)
13. Which of the following cofactors IS NOT required in the TCA Cycle?
C. cytochrome c* (2011)
14. Which of the following statements correctly describes the electron transport chain?
A. acetyl CoA is a component of complex II B. the electron transport chain is involved in the process of oxidative phosphorylation
C. electron enter the electron transport chain at complexes III and IV
D. coenzyme Q is the final electron acceptor
B. the electron transport chain is involved in the process of oxidative phosphorylation* (2011)
15. Which of the following statements concerning the TCA Cycle is false?
B. a decrease in the NADP/NAD ratio will inhibit the TCA Cycle due to substrate Unavailability* (2011)
16. Which of the following is not a characteristic of insulin?
A. the hormone binds to intracellular receptors* (2011)
17. Which of the following best describes the metabolism of fructose?
A. a fructokinase deficiency depletes the liver of ATP and leads to cataract formation
B. aldolase B converts fructose-1-P to glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone Phosphate
C. fructokinase converts fructose to fructose-6-P
D. fructose is formed from the hydrolysis of lactose
B. aldolase B converts fructose-1-P to glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone Phosphate* (2011)
18. The process of glycogenolysis:
C. is regulated by controlling the activity of glycogen phosphorylase* (2011)
19. Which of the following is not a role of UDP-glucose?
A. used in glycosaminoglycan synthesis* (2011)
20. Which of the following is not a defense against oxygen toxicity?
E. thiamine* (2011)
21. An individual with a disease caused by a defect in mitochondrial DNA might be expected to have which of the following?
B. increased ratio of NADH/NAD+* (2011)
22. If you have not eaten in the past 24 hours, which of the following pathways will be most active?
B. gluconeogenesis* (2011)
23. The Pentose Phosphate Pathway does all of the following except:
A. provides intermediate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis
B. protect red blood cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS)
C. provide ribose for nucleotide synthesis
D. generation of NADPH
A. provides intermediate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis* (2011)
24. Group I and II hormones have which of the following in common?
D. most type I and II hormones require transport proteins* (2011)
25. All of the following molecules can function as second messengers except:
C. AMP* (2011)
26. In contrast to liver, muscle does not release glucose into the blood in response to epinephrine because muscle lacks
E. glucose-6-phosphatase* (2011)
27. Which of the following vitamins is required for the Pentose Phosphate pathway to operate normally
D. niacin* (2011)
28. In the fed state, which of the following pathways increase in activity?
E. A and C* (2011)
29. If mitochondrial electron transport was blocked from NAD to CoQ, which one of the following substrates could be used as an energy source?
C. succinate* (2011)
30. Which of the following is not a function of the TCA Cycle?
A oxidizes acetyl CoA
B. produces H2O
C. produces GTP
D. produces NADH E. produces FADH2
B. produces H2O* (2011)
31. Concerning membrane structure:
A. increasing the level of saturated fatty acids decreases membrane fluidity* (2011)
32. Passive facilitated transport has which of the following characteristics?
A. specificity for solute
B. can transport solutes against a concentration gradient C. subject to inhibition
D. A and B
E. A and C
E. A and C* (2011)
33. Which of the following is an example of a membrane related disease?
A. Wilson’s Disease* (2011)
34. The uptake of macromolecules from the extracellular medium to inside the cell is termed:
D. endocytosis* (2011)
35. UDP-glucuronate is involved in all of the following except:
B. glycogen synthesis* (2011)
36. Which of the following types of plasma membrane receptors utilize second messengers to facilitate responses to hormones?
B. heptahelical receptors* (2011)
37. Glucagon exerts its primary effects on which of the following tissues/organs?
C. liver* (2011)
38. Which of the following statements best describes the Cori Cycle?
A. The transfer of lactate formed in muscle to the liver which is used to synthesize glucose which is returned to muscle* (2011)
39. Concerning gluconeogenesis, which of the following statements is false?
D. the pathway increases in activity in the fed state* (2011)
40. Concerning carbohydrate digestion:
C. Lactose intolerance leads to a buildup of hydrogen and methane by intestinal Bacteria* (2011)
41. The reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, can be formed At which site on the mitochondrial electron transport chain?
C. Coenzyme Q* (2011)
42. A patient diagnosed with thiamine deficiency exhibited fatigue and muscle cramps. The muscle cramps have been related to an accumulation of which of the following organic acids?
C. alpha-ketoglutarate* (2011)
43. Concerning the PDH complex:
A. the enzyme is subject to covalent modification* (2011)
44. Concerning the process of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation:
A. increases electron transport and decreases ATP synthesis* (2011)
45. Formation of galactose in a patient on a galactose free diet requires which of the following enzymes?
B. Epimerase* (2011)
46. During phagocytosis, there is a large increase in the activity of which of the following pathways of carbohydrate metabolism?
B. Pentose Phosphate pathway* (2011)
47. Which of the following would be an example of an anaplerotic reaction?
C. Formation of oxaloacetate from pyruvate and CO2* (2011)
48. Digestion of sucrose produces:
C. Glucose and fructose* (2011)
49. Which of the following is not a function of NADPH?
B. Mitochondrial electron transport* (2011)
50. Which of the following coenzymes requires the vitamin niacin?