Wildlife Ecology and Conservartion

  1. What is wildlife?
    • Congress: all species, all animal classes, and all part or products of that animal (feather, egg, etc.) even after death
    • Wildlife Society: all animals
    • **definitions have changed through time
  2. Wildlife Ecology?
    The study of the relationship between wildlife and their environment.
  3. Wildlife Management?
    • Leopold: The art of making land produce sustainable annual crops of wild game for recreational use (1933)
    • Bailey: The art of making land produce valuable populations of wildlife (1984)
    • Wildlife Society/Journal of Wildlife Management: The practical ecology of all vertebrates and their plant and animal associates along sound biological lines (1937)
    • **stewardship of wildlife
  4. Wildlife Conservation
    Giuliano: The application of ecological knowledge to wildlife and habitats that balances the needs of the people with that of wildlife
  5. Goal for Wildlife Management
    • We want to either increase, decrease, maintain, and/or stabilize
    •    BY: focusing on a featured (single) species management, multiple, biodiversity, or ecosystem
    • direct: animals
    • indirect: environment
    • 3 areas to work on are animal, habitat, and people
  6. "Law of limiting Link"
    • The management chain for a species is only as strong as its weakest link
    •     -The smallest link which is the link that represents the least that is known about that animal
  7. Era of Abundance
    • 1600-1849
    • wildlife was thought that it was inexhaustible
    • negative affects=predators and harmful wildlife were persecuted
    • some deer harvest laws but there was no enforcement
    •   -1739 1st wardens in MA
    • 1842: Supreme Courts affirms "Public Trust Doctrine"
    •   -natural resources being to all the people in the US
    • 1844-Great auk extinct
  8. Era of Overexploitation
    • 1850-1899
    • game species (bison) decline because human population and settlement, railroads, market and sport hunting
    • 1864 Man and Nature published (G.P. Marsh)
    • 1872: Yellowstone Park Act (first national park)
    • 1891: Forest Reserve Act- the president set aside millions of acres
    • 1899: Refuse Act- regulate pollutants in rivers 
  9. Era of Protection
    • 1900-1929
    • 1900: Lacey Act- ended market hunting, import of exotic wildlife, and interstate commerce of wildlife
    • 1903: Pelican Island Fl became the first federal wildlife refuge
    • 1913: Weeks-McLean Migratory Bird Act-federal government regulated migratory and insectivorous birds (dept of Interior)
    • first conservation movement begins
  10. Roosevelt's Wise Use Doctrine
    think about wildlife as a whole (ecosystems), wildlife is collectively owned by the people of the US, and it needs to be based on training of the people with the science needed
  11. wilderness areas
    small pieces of land within federal wildlife areas that are protected for people to use 
  12. Era of Game Management
    • 1930-1965
    • 1934: federal money given to the states to fund wildlife conservation
    • 1934: Duck Stamp Act- federal license, money acquires land for national parks, etc.
    • 1934: Taylor Grazing Act- requires us to manage grazing on our lands (cattle egret from Africa)
    • 1937: PR Act- hunting equipment was taxes 11%, it was already built into the price of the good, federal government gets the money and gives it back to the states 
    • 1950: DJ Act-same tax on fishing gear
    • 1964: Land and Water Conservation Fund- money to create a park, money for this fund comes from fees from people drilling for oil/natural gas
  13. Era of Environmental/Ecological 
    • 1966-present
    • 1969: NEPA- requires any federal agency to work together on all projects that effect the environment
  14. Law vs. Policy
    • laws- made either at state or federal levels, concrete, everyone has to follow them
    • policy- they help guide the "gray" areas of laws, ever changing with persons in charge
  15. American Game Policy
    • -Extend public ownership & management of game lands
    • -Recognize landowners as custodians of public game on private lands
    • -Encourage and experiment with ways to bring hunters, landowners, and the public into productive relationships to provide game management
    • (1930)
    • -hunters fit most of the bill
  16. 7 Sisters of Conservation
    • -Wildlife is held in the public trust
    • -Eliminate commerce in dead wildlife  
    • -Allocate wildlife use through law
    • -Hunting opportunities for all
    • -Wildlife may be killed only for legitimate reasons
    • -Wildlife is an international resource
    • -Science as the basis for wildlife policy
  17. the 8 divisions under the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
    • -hunting and game management
    • -marine fisheries management
    • -freshwater fisheries management
    • -law enforcement
    • -habitat and species conservation
    • -fish and wildlife research institute
  18. 5 NGO's associated with wildlife conservation
    • •Ducks Unlimited
    • •The Nature Conservancy
    • •Wilderness Society
    • •Wildlife Management Institute
    • •The Wildlife Society
  19. How is wildlife conservation funded?
    • -General tax revenues
    •    =Income taxes & fees
    • -Excise taxes (e.g., P-R $)
    • -Sales taxes
    • -Tax check-offs
    • -License sales
    •      =Special use stamps (e.g., archery
    • stamp)
    • -Private sector
  20. How is the commission organized above the divisions?
    • laws/legislature
    • Governor
    • commission
    • executive director
  21. 8 values of wildlife
    • Commercial• Recreational• Biological• Scientific, philosophical, & educational• Aesthetic• Social• Undiscovered or undeveloped• Negative
  22. Florida's economics of wildlife.
    • over 8 billion dollars spent in 2011
    • 242,000 hunters spent 720,000,000
    • 3,000,000 fishers spent 4,000,000,000
    • 4,000,000 wildlife watchers spent                          3,000,000,000
    • avg $700/person/year
  23. US economics of wildlife
    • over 130 billion dollars spent in 2011
    • 13,700,000 hunters spent 33,700,000,000
    • 33,000,000 fishers spent 42,000,000,000
    • 72,000,000 watchers spent 55,000,000,000
    • avg $766/person/year
  24. If hunting and trapping were abandoned:
    • an additional 50,000 & 50 deaths from wildlife-auto
    • $1.45 spent to control rabies
    • government would need to spend $9 billion/year to control deer
    • loss of revenue
  25. wildlife attitudes/values
    naturalist, ecologist, humanistic, moralistic, scientific, aesthetic, utilitarian, dominionistic, negativisitic
  26. ethics
    • A moral philosophy
    •     – Standards we employ to determine our actions and evaluate whether something is good or bad
  27. Leopold's land ethic
    • • Land is a community (and includes us)
    • • Land is to be loved & respected
    • •The existence of an ecological conscience– See, feel, understand, love, or otherwise have faith in
  28. notable people in wildlife
    Audubon, Marsh, Thoreau, Olmsted, Muir, Grinnell, Roosevelt, Pinchot, Mather, "Ding" Darling, Leopold, Errington, Murie, Rachel Carson "Silent Spring"
  29. Federal control over:
    migratory birds, exotics, interstate shipments, endangered species, fed. lands and what effects it, international agreements
  30. states control over:
    resident wildlife, research, anything not fed. law
Card Set
Wildlife Ecology and Conservartion
wildlife ecology text #1: laws ans ethics/values