Embalming Discussions Exam 2

  1. solutions of solids, liquids, and/or gases which can be injected into the body arterially, hypodermically, or be applied to the body surface as a spray, wash, or pack
    embalming fluids
  2. the fundamental purpose is for vascular injection
    embalming fluids
  3. 3 types of embalming fluids
    • 1. Arterial or preservative fluids
    • 2. Cavity fluids
    • 3. Supplemental fluids
  4. to inactivate the active chemical groups of proteins or amino acids (coagulate the proteins)
    function of arterial fluids
  5. inactivate further decomposition
    function of arterial fluids
  6. inactivate enzymes
    function of arterial fluids
  7. kill microorganisms
    function of arterial fluids
  8. destroy odors and eliminate their further reproduction
    function of arterial fluids
  9. to be injected in an aqueous solution of varying strengths into the arterial system so it may unite with the cells of the body to produce a state of preservation
    purpose of arterial fluids
  10. to disinfect, preserve, and firm the tissues of the body without causing objectionable changes in the skin or tissues
    purpose of arterial fluids
  11. 2 classifications of embalming chemicals
    • 1. color
    • 2. index or strength
  12. color classifications of embalming chemicals
    • 1. cosmetic fluids
    • 2. non-cosmetic fluids
  13. contain active dyes
    cosmetic fluids
  14. these will impart a color change on the body tissues of the deceased for the purpose of restoring a more natural skin tone
    cosmetic fluids
  15. contain inactive dyes
    non-cosmetic fluids
  16. these will NOT impart a color change on the body tissues of the deceased
    non-cosmetic fluids
  17. refers to the amount of formaldehyde, measured in grams, dissolved in 100mL of water
    index or strength
  18. classifications of embalming fluid index (strength)
    • 1. Hardening fluids (strong)
    • 2. Semi-hardening (semi-firming) fluids (medium)
    • 3. Non-hardening (non-firming) fluids (weak)
  19. high formaldehyde content
      30-36 index
    hardening fluids (strong)
  20. causes rapid tissue coagulation and fixation with a high degree of firmness
    hardening fluids (strong)
  21. use for problem cases, difficult to firm bodies, or by embalmers who like a high degree of tissue rigidity
    hardening fluids (strong)
  22. improper use of this fluid will cause dehydration
    hardening fluids (strong)
  23. considered to be cosmetic fluids
    semi-hardening (semi-firming) fluids (medium)
  24. used for routine embalming
    semi-hardening (semi-firming) fluids (medium)
  25. formaldehyde content 20-28 index
    semi-hardening (semi-firming) fluids (medium)
  26. produce a moderate, rather slow-forming flexible or rubbery firmness with little dehydration
    semi-hardening (semi-firming) fluids (medium)
  27. contain less formaldehyde
      8-18 index
    non-hardening (non-firming) fluids (weak)
  28. used chiefly for special cases
       jaundice, children, and infants
    non-hardening (non-firming) fluids (weak)
  29. produces a minimum amount of rigidity
    non-hardening (non-firming) fluids (weak)
  30. not considered economical for use on regular cases
    non-hardening (non-firming) fluids (weak)
  31. inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render the media upon which such bacteria thrive unsuitable for nutrition, and arrest decomposition by altering enzymes of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissues into a form much less susceptible to decomposition
  32. often contain fixatives
  33. agents employed in the preparation of tissues for the purpose of maintaining the existing form of the structure
  34. best known and most used preservative
  35. not an effective fungicide, insecticide, or larvacide
  36. routine embalming does not prevent the growth of mold or the development of maggots at some later time
  37. discovered in 1868 by August Von Hoffman
  38. other names for the compound are methanal, oxymethyline, methylaldehyde
  39. formula is CH2O or HCHO
  40. belongs to a class of compounds, the aldehydes, which are formed by the oxidation of primary alcohols
  41. may be prepared by passing a mixture of methyl alcohol vapor and oxygen over a copper, silver or platinum plate, which has been heated to 450 degrees C

    the resulting gas is then dissolved in water to make a solution known as formalin

  42. a 40% (by volume) and 37% (by weight) saturated aqueous solution of formaldehyde gas
  43. in 1886, a chemist named Loew, discovered that a 2% formaldehyde solution will kill most bacteria in five minutes
  44. it was previously known that a 1% solution will destroy most bacteria in one hour
  45. a colorless gas with a pungent, penetrating odor
  46. it has a strong affinity for water and rapidly exhausts the moisture from any substance it contacts
  47. it is very irritating to the eyes and to all mucous membranes
  48. strong or large amounts of ammonia will tend to inactivate ____________
  49. coagulates proteins
  50. poured on egg whites...it will poach them
  51. when it contacts the proteins of the human body cell and the bacteria cells, it produces the same reaction
  52. it coagulates the blood due to the protein contained therein
  53. How do embalming powders preserve and disinfect?
    germicidal agents
  54. How is formaldehyde made?
    • Methyl alcohol vapor and oxygen over copper;
    • resulting gas is dissolved in water
  55. Know all the other names for pre-injection fluids
    • primary injection fluids
    • capillary wash
  56. Know all the other names for surfactant (4)
    • Surface Active Agents
    • Surface Tension Reducers
    • Wetting Agents
    • Penetrating agents
  57. The improper use of a hardening fluid could cause what?
  58. What are active dyes?
    • impart color change to body
    • Eosin & Erythrosine
  59. What are the chemicals added to arterial fluids to meet the varying demands of embalming different cases?
    Modifying Agents
  60. What are the components of a pack application?
    • Coagulating Agents
    • Preservatives
    • Vehicles
    • Perfuming Agents
  61. What are the components of cavity fluids?
    • Preservative Agents
    • Germicides
    • Vehicles
    • Surfactants
  62. What are the components of jaundice fluids?
    • Low HCHO (Formaldehyde) content
    • regulating agents
    • bleaching agents
    • counter staining compounds
  63. What are the components of pre-injection fluids?
  64. What are the inactive dyes?
    • will not impart color
    • panceau (red)
    • carmine
  65. What are the other names for formaldehyde?
    • methanal
    • oxymethylene
    • methyl aldehyde
  66. What are the three types of embalming fluids?
    • hardening
    • semi-hardening
    • non-hardening
  67. What arterial fluids produce a moderate, slow-forming flexible or rubbery firmness?
  68. What chemicals are designed to absorb prevent the formation of mold?
    mold preventative
  69. What chemicals are designed to produce maximum preservation with a minimum amount of fluid?
    cavity fluids
  70. What chemicals are meant to preserve the viscera, for hypodermic injection, or for surface applications to unexposed areas of the body?
    cavity fluids
  71. What component of an arterial fluid is important in governing reactions between the arterial fluid and the body tissues?
    inorganic salts
  72. What components of an arterial fluid will help to control specific gravity and hardening power of that fluid?
    inorganic salts
  73. What compound acts as a reliable disinfectant and preservative as well as an effective bleaching and dehydrating agent?
  74. What compound is formaldehyde formed from?
  75. What compounds are manufactured to dry the viscera and provide minimal preservation in autopsied, mutilated, gangrenous or ulcerated cases?
    hardening compounds
  76. produces leaden gray
  77. What compounds are used as germicides in arterial fluids?
    • phenol
    • quats
  78. What compounds are used chiefly for their germicidal and deodorizing value?
  79. What compounds will "give off" formaldehyde when in the presence of a catalysts?
    formaldehyde donor compounds
  80. What compounds will help an embalmed body retain moisture?
  81. What compounds will help to stabilize the acid-base balance in an arterial solution or in an embalmed body?
  82. What does formaldehyde do to proteins?
  83. What fluid is likely to have additional anticoagulants and germicides?
    high preservation demand fluids
  84. What fluid is meant to prevent the conversion of bilirubin to biliverdin?
    jaundice fluids
  85. What fluids are considered not economical for use on regular cases?
  86. What fluids are meant to be used on problem or difficult to firm bodies?
  87. What fluids will cause rapid tissue coagulation and fixation?
  88. What is a hardening agent in hardening compounds?
    plaster of paris
  89. What is the chief vehicle of every arterial fluid?
  90. What is the chocolate brown pigment formed when formaldehyde reacts with the hemoglobin of the blood?
  91. What is the disinfectant in hardening compounds?
  92. What are the functions of arterial fluids?
    • coagulate proteins
    • inactivate enzymes
    • inactivate further decomposition
    • kill microorganisms
    • destroy odors/eliminate their further reproduction
  93. What is the fundamental purpose of embalming fluids?
    vascular injection
  94. What is the index range for hardening fluids?
  95. What is the index range for non-hardening fluids?
  96. What is the index range for semi-hardening fluids?
  97. What is the main reason methanol is used in embalming fluids?
    • penetrates the body tissues very well
    • has a toxic effect on bacteria
    • acts as a stabilizer or antipolymerization  agent of formaldehyde
  98. What is the mold inhibitor in mold preventative agents?
  99. What is the percentage of formaldehyde by volume in formalin?
  100. What is the percentage of formaldehyde by weight in formalin?
  101. What is the purpose of arterial fluids?
    be injected in arterial system for preservation, disinfect, preserve, & firm muscles without causing objectionable changes
  102. What should an embalmer use if there is magnesium, iron, and/or calcium in the water source?
    water conditioners
  103. What solvent will increase the solubility of formaldehyde in water?
  104. What type of arterial fluid is used for routine embalming?
  105. What type of arterial fluid will cause rapid tissue coagulation and fixation?
  106. What type of organic compound is formaldehyde?
  107. What types of cases should a non-hardening fluid be used on?
    children, infants, jaundice
  108. What will cause the formation of a "leaden gray" discoloration?
  109. What will formaldehyde do to the blood?
  110. What will help to keep the capillaries permeable?
  111. Where is phenol obtained from?
    the distillation of coal tar
  112. discovered formaldehyde?
    August van hoffman
Card Set
Embalming Discussions Exam 2
Embalming Discussions Exam 2 Embalming Chemicals