1. Describe Spirochetes (Group 1)
    Spirochetes have a characteristic corkscrew shape and are motile due to their axial filaments
  2. Genus Borrelia (Group 1)
    B. burgforferi
    B. burgdorferi: causes Lyme disease. Vectored into humans by the bite of the deer tick (Ixodes scapularis)
  3. Genus Treponema (Group 1)
    T. pallidum
    T. pallidum: causes syphilis, a sexually-transmitted disease
  4. Genus Campylobacter (Group 2)
    C. jejeuni
    C. jejeuni: often found in cattle, pig, chicken intestines and contaminating meat products. Probably as common a cause of enteritis (food poisoning) as Salmonella
  5. Genus Heliobacter (Group 2)
    H. pylori
    H. pylori: infection with this organism is a necessary prerequisite for a gastric ulcer; ulcers are now treated with a course of antibiotics
  6. Genus Legionella (Group 4)
    L. pneumophila
    L. pneumophila: discovered when it sickened 182, killed 26 in a mysterious pneumonia outbreak at a 1976 American Legionnaire's convention in Philadelphia.  Now known to be common in streams as well as sometimes in the water lines of air conditioning systems.  Responsible for a significant number of pneumonia cases in nursing homes.
  7. Genus Neisseria (Group 4)
    N. gonorrheae
    N. gonorrheae: cause of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease; often results in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which can scar the Fallopian tubes and cause sterility; neonatal infections from mother at birth are possible

    N. meninigitidis: the 'meningococcus', causes meningococcal meningitis
  8. Genus Pseudomonas (Group 4)
    various Pseudomonas'. Very common in water and soil, resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants (sometimes grow in quarantary-ammonium compound disinfectants), UTI's, wound infections, very dangerous for burn patients (no flowers in the burn ward!), serious pneumonia in people with cystic fibrosis (slime-producing pseudomonads grow in thick sticky mucus in their lungs), often produces green or blue pigments (green or blue pus) and smells like concord grapes
  9. Genus Enterobacter (Group 5)
    E. aerogenes
  10. Genus Escherichia (Group 5)
    E. coli
    E. Coli: the prokaryotic 'guinea pig'.  Very well characterized. Used in pioneering studies of genetics, some strains cause traveler's diarrhea  and strain 0157:H7 is pathogenic (hemolytic uremic syndrome which has killed people, esp children)
  11. Genus Klebsiella (Group 5)
    K. pneumoniae
    K. pneumoniae: cause of pneumonia in elderly and immocompromised
  12. Genus Proteus (Group 5)
    P. vulgaris
    P. vulgaris: highly motile
  13. Genus Salmonella (Group 5)
    S. typhi
    S. typhi: cause of typhoid fever, a big killer before good sanitation practices (e.g. municipal treatment of sewage and drinking water).  Some people are asymptomatic carriers of S. typhi ("typhoid Mary, Mary Mallon, a domestic cook, probably killed several dozen people in the northeastern US ion 18902/1900s before being incarcerated)
  14. Genus Salmonella (Group 5)
    S. enteritidis
    S. enteritidis: cause of salmonellosis aka food poisoning, very common
  15. Genus Shigella (Group 5)
    No example species given. Shigella resembles E. coli except it almost invariably produces a variety of endotoxins
  16. Genus Yersinia (Group 5)
    Y. pestis
    Y. pestis: vectored into humans by bites of infected fleas, causes plague.  Bubonic plague (lymphatic infection) has an untreated mortality rate of 50-75%, pneumonic plague nearly always kills.  Y. pestis was the probable cause of the 1347-1350 "Black death" an epidemic that killed 1/3 the population in Europe
  17. Genus Vibrio (Group 5)
    V. cholerae
    V. cholerae: the cause of cholera, produces a powerful enterotoxin that inhibits water reabsorption by the large intestine, prodigious quantities of water diarrhea, death by dehydration in hours. Treatment is supportive fluids, but sadly most epidemics occur in very poor nations where even this elementary treatment is unavailable
  18. Genus Haemophilus (Group 5)
    H. influenzae
    H. influenzae: so called as it only grows on blood-based media in the laboratory and was discovered and mid-identified as the cause of the 1890 influenza pandemic.  Found in the nasopharynx of about 75% of people, virulent strains cause meningitis, earache, epiglottitis and pneumonia.  Immunization against this bacterium has been part of normal childhood series (Hib vaccine) since 1985
  19. Genus Bacteroides (Group 6)
    B. fragilis
    B. fragilis: strict anaerobe, very common in human colon, cause of peritonitis from penetrating abdominal wound (eg gunshot or shell fragment wound) or ruptured appendix
  20. Describe Group 9
    The Rickettsias and the Chlamydias: both, though distantly related taxonomically, are placed together in this group because both are obligate intracellular parasites, unable to reproduce on their own and must infect an appropriate host in order to do so

    Ricksettias are transmitted to humans via the bites of ticks (Rocky Mt Spotted fever) or fleas (typhus)

    Chlamydias are transmitted between humans by direct contact or airborne contact.  Chlamydia cases nongonococcal urethritis, which may be the most common STD in the US.  Children born to indected mothers may suffer eye infections (Trachoma) which can lead to blindness if untreated (so silver nitrate or antibiotic salve is applied to the newborn's eyes)
  21. Genus Streptococcus (Group 17)
    S. mutans
    S. mutans: normal oral flora, forms biofilm on teeth (plaque), acids produced by carbohydrate fermentation result in caries.  Oral surgery can accidentally inoculate them into the bloodstream where they can eventually wind up growing on heart valves or the lining of the heart, very dangeous, thus prophylatic antibiotics often accompany oral surgery
  22. Genus Staphylococcus (Group 17)
    S. aureus
    S. aureus: can be quite pathogenic.  Commonly found on skin, nares, groin, axillae.  Produces a variety of toxins and tissue destroying enzymes, very resistant to drying and heat. Often resistant to multiple antibiotics (MRSA, VRSA). Can cause toxic shock syndrome, abscesses, wound infections, and food intoxication (food poisoning brought on by entero-intestinal toxins produced by S. aureus growing in contaminated food)
  23. Genus Streptococcus (Group 17)
    S. pneumoniae
    S. pneumoniae:encasulated, cause of pneumonia, especially in the children and the elderly
  24. Genus Streptococcus (Group 17)
    S. pyrogenes
    S. pyrogenes: Group A Strep.  Causes strep throat (and the occasional life threatening complications should the bacteria secondarily invade kidneys or heart valves), impetigo, otitis media, necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating strep)
  25. Genus Streptococcus (Group 17)
    S. lactis
    S. lactis: lactose fermenter used in yogurt manufacture
  26. Genus Bacillus (Group 18)
    B. anthracis
    B. anthracis: first bacteria identified as the cause of a disease (Koch 1877).  Primarily a disease of livestock, infection results from inhalation or ingestion of spores.  Vegetative bacteria produce deadly exotoxins which cause death by circulatory collapse and pulmonary edema
  27. Genus Bacillus (Group 18)
    B. cereus
    B. cereus: produces enterotoxins, grows in cooked warm rice, common cause of chinese-food aquired food poisoning
  28. Genus Clostridium (Group 18)
    C. botulinum
    C. botulinum: extremely powerful neurotoxins (considered the most toxic known), causes flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest,and death.  Symptoms result from eating contaminated food containing the botulinum bacteria
  29. Genus Clostridium (Group 18)
    C. difficile
    C. difficile: common cause of superinfection involving colon, toxins damage lining of colon, very difficult if not impossible to eradicate once established in the colon
  30. Genus Clostridium (Group 18)
    C. perfringens
    C. perfringens: produces an assortment of tissue-destroying enzymes and toxins, cause of gas gangrene, an almost inevitable sequel to battlefield wounds (bullets and shell fragments pass through muddy uniforms and into flesh) before WWII (when penicillin was first used by allied forces to treat such wounds)
  31. Genus Clostridium (Group 18)
    C. tetani
    C. tetani: powerful neurotoxins causing spastic paralysis
  32. Genus Lactobacillis (Group 19)
    No sample species given. Lactobacilli ferment carbohydrates producing acid.  A common and necessary member of the vaginal normal flora, prevents colonization of vaginal epithelium by yeasts and other pathogens.
  33. Genus Listeria (Group 19)
    L. monocytogenes
    L. monocytogenes: notable for being able to grow readily in refrigerated food.  Found widely in animal populations, infection in pregnant women can result in serious consequences to the fetus.  Occasional cause of sepsis and meningitis, particularly in elderly and immunocompromised individuals
  34. Genus Corynebacterium (Group 20)
    C. diphtheriae
    C. diphtheriae: cause of diphtheria, a serious upper respiratory infections.  Until 1973 killed more children in US than any other infectious disease.  Infections are rare today due to child immunizations (DPT vaccine)
  35. Genus Mycobacterium (Group 21)
    M. tuberculosis
    M. Tuberculosis: a growing problem, particularly in AIDS patients, many strains multiply-resistant, some strains are not treatable with any anti-biotic
  36. Genus Mycobacterium (Group 21)
    M. leprae
    M. leprae: cause of Hansen's disease (leprosy), extremities affected (bacteria grows best at a slightly lower temperature found in hands, feet, etc)
  37. Genus Mycobacterium (Group 21)
    M. avium
    M. avium: complex, a group of related mycobacterial species that have become a significant opportunities pathogen in HIV/Aids patients
  38. Genus Streptomyces (Group 25)
    no sample species given.  a large group (over 500 identified species) of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria, various members of this genus are responsible for the production of many of our natural antibiotic drugs
  39. Genus Mycoplasma (Group 30)
    M. pneumoniae
    M. pneumoniae: tiny bacterium (.1-.25μm) causes mild (Walking) pneumonia
  40. FUNGI
    Genus Trichophyton
    one of the so called "dermatophyte" genera, this fungus produces keratinases that allow it to digest, and thus live in, the keratin abundant in hair, skin, or nail tissues.  Trichophyton is thus responsible for many fungal infections of the hair, skin, and nails
  41. FUNGI
    Genus Epidermophyton
    another dermatophyte genus, Epidermophyton usually affects only skin and nails
  42. FUNGI
    Genus Microsporum
    a thidr dermatophyte genus, Microsporum tends to prefer hair to skin or nails
  43. FUNGI
    Genus Candida
    this is the yeast genus responsible for most human yeast infections  both of the vagina and the mouth (called thrush)
  44. FUNGI
    Genus Histoplasma
    often abundant in deposits of bird or bat droppings, humans become infected by inhalation.  This fungus can grow in the lungs and occasional enter the bloodstream, causing a dangerous generalized infection (histoplasmosis)
  45. FUNGI
    Genus Aspergillus
    a common mold that can grow on plants, and sometimes produces very toxic aflatoxins.  Corn and peanuts are particularly susceptible to aflatoxin contamination   Consumption of aflatoxin, even in minute amounts, can cause serious illness in humans and livestock
  46. FUNGI
    Genus Pneumocystis
    historically thought to be a protozoan, recent evidence suggests that this organism is a fungus.  Although mostly harmless to healthy persons, Pneumocytis pneumonia is a significant illness in persons with HIV/Aids
Card Set
for the final exam