What are the properties of living things?
- Living things exhibit order
- Living things regulate their internal environment.
- Living things grow and develop
- Living things engage in energy transformations
- Living things respond to their environment
- Living things produce their own kind
- Living things evolve
What are the different levels of life do biologists study?
- The Biosphere
- Organ system
What is a Histologists?
Someone who studies tissue
What do Molecular Biologists study?
What do Ecosystem biologists study?
Study of living and non-living things in aware and how they interact.
What do Community biologists study?
Study restricted to the living things in a area
What do Population biologists study?
Study of a single species w/in an area
What are an example of Producers?
What is an example of a Consumer?
What is an example of a Decomposer?
What are the two types of Cells?
What is a Prokaryote?
- A cell with no membrane bound nucleus
- Also called nucleods
What is an Eukaryotes?
- A cell with a membrane bound nucleus
- All cells in the Human body
How many species have been identified?
How are species are organized?
What are the three domains of life?
What kingdoms are in Eukarya?
What is an example of Artificial selection?
What is the Process of Science-Hypothesis-based science?
What is the Atomic Structure?
What is a Proton?
+1 Charge ion
What is a Neuron?
A neutral ion
What is an Electron?
A - charged ion
How many electrons can the outer shell of an atom hold?
What is the mass of an electron?
0, no mass
What is the Atomic Mass?
Protons + Neutrons = Atomic mass
What is the Atomic Number?
# of protons, unique for each element.
How many electrons can Hydrogen hold in its outer shell?
What is an Ionic Bond?
- An exchange of electrons
- Between atoms
- Generally week
What is a Covalent Bond?
- Sharing of electrons between elements.
- Generally strong
How many Bonds can a Covalent Bond have?
- Triple (Unstable)
What are Electronegative Elements?
- Have a high affinity for electrons
- Oxygen and Nitrogen
What are Non-polar Covalent Bonds?
- Equal sharing of electrons between atoms
- Carbon and hydrogen
- Electrons stay near the positive charge ion more
What are polar-covalent Bonds?
- Unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
- Oxygen and hydrogen
- Electrons move freely
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
- Attraction between and electronegative (O and N) element and H
- A week bond
What is Hydrophilic?
- Water attracted
- Water loving
What is Cohesion?
- The attraction between water and molecules
- (H bonding)
What is Adhesion?
The attraction between water and molecules and other charged surfaces
What is the pH scale?
- Water will dissociate (very little)
- The concentration of hydrogen with oxygen is what changes the pH number
What is the four most important elements in life?
What is an example of a trace element?
- Needed to make the thyroid hormone
What is the mass of an Neutron?
What is the Mass of a Proton?
What is a specific heat?
the amount of heat to raise a substance
How many electrons are in the outer most shell of Carbon?
What are the major molecule types?
- Nucleic acids
What are Monocacharides?
- Simple sugar carb
- Pentoses -5C
- Hexoses - 6C
What are the different types of Carbs?
What are Pentoses?
- A five carbon sugar
What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
The oxygen on Carbon 2
What is an Isomer?
2 Molecules with the same formula with different arrangement of groups
What is a Disaccharide?
Two simple sugars joined
What are some examples of Polysaccharides?
What is a Starch?
- Glucose polymer, energy storage in plants.
What is Glycogen?
- A Polysaccharide
- Glucose polymer, energy storage in animals
What is Cellulose?
- Glucose polymer, structure molecule in plants
- We don't produce the enzyme to break down Cellulose
What types of fats are there?
- Neutral fats
- Saturated fats
- Unsaturated fats
What are Neutral fats?
- 3 fatty acids +1 glycerol (joined via condensation Rx)
- Efficient means of energy storage
What are saturated fats?
No double bonds between C's (Carbons)
What are Unsaturated fats?
At least 1 double bond
What is Cholesterol?
- Part of the cell membranes
- Starting material for synthesis of steroids hormones
- High serum levels assoc. with heart disease
What is a Phospholipid?
- Major component of cell membranes
What is Amphipathic?
- Polar and non-polar ends
- Hydrophobic and hydrophyllic
What makes up proteins?
What is the amino group of an amino acid?
Hydrogen bonded to nitrogen on the left side
What is the Carboxyl group?
- The right with carbon double bonded to oxygen
- and carbon is attached to hydrogen and oxygen
What changes all amino acids?
The side group
How many Amino acids are there?
When dealing with amino acids what is the term for a covalent bond?
A peptide bond
How are amino acids joined?
What is the primary structure of a protein?
The order (sequence) of amino acids in the protein
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
A regular repeating structure that occurs over short distances w/in proteins
What are some examples of a secondary structure of a protein?
- Alpha Helix
- Beta Sheets
- Pleeted sheets
- Random coil (not really secondary, completely random)
What is the Tertiary Structure of a protein
- The 3d shape (conformation) of a single protein chain
- Essential for the function of most proteins
- fragile and easily disrupted by heat or pH changes
- Very critical to the function of the molecule
What is the Quaternary Structure?
- The arrangement of subunits of a multi-subunit protein in 3d space
- Multiple aa chains
What is a Nucleotide?
- The building block of DNA and RNA
- A sugar molecule (Deoxyribose, ribose) bonded to a phosphate group on the third carbon and a Nitrogen base bonded to the second carbon on the sugar.
What is the different Nitrogen bases possible with DNA and RNA?
What kind of bond is between the two bases on both sides of DNA and RNA?
- Hydrogen bonds
- Two hydrogen bonds between A and T
- Three hydrogen bonds between C and G
Where does DNA live?
- Within the nucleus
- Doesn't participate in protein synthesis
What are the different types of RNA
What is mRNA?
A "working copy" of the gene
What is tRNA?
- Carries amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
What is rRNA?
- Part of machinery needed to make proteins
- Ribosomal RNA