Exam one bio

  1. What are the properties of living things?
    • Living things exhibit order
    • Living things regulate their internal environment.
    • Living things grow and develop
    • Living things engage in energy transformations
    • Living things respond to their environment
    • Living things produce their own kind
    • Living things evolve
  2. What are the different levels of life do biologists study?
    • The Biosphere
    • Ecosystem
    • Community
    • Population
    • Organism
    • Organ system
    • Organ
    • Tissue
    • Cell
    • Molecule
    • Atom
  3. What is a Histologists?
    Someone who studies tissue
  4. What do Molecular Biologists study?
  5. What do Ecosystem biologists study?
    Study of living and non-living things in aware and how they interact.
  6. What do Community biologists study?
    Study restricted to the living things in a area
  7. What do Population biologists study?
    Study of a single species w/in an area
  8. What are an example of Producers?
    Green plants
  9. What is an example of a Consumer?
  10. What is an example of a Decomposer?
  11. What are the two types of Cells?
    • Prokaryotes
    • Eukaryotes
  12. What is a Prokaryote?
    • A cell with no membrane bound nucleus
    • Also called nucleods
  13. What is an Eukaryotes?
    • A cell with a membrane bound nucleus
    • All cells in the Human body
  14. How many species have been identified?
    1.8 million
  15. How are species are organized?
    by Relatedness
  16. What are the three domains of life?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  17. What kingdoms are in Eukarya?
    • Plantae
    • Fungi
    • Animalia
    • Protista
  18. What is an example of Artificial selection?
    Dog breeding
  19. What is the Process of Science-Hypothesis-based science?
    • Observation
    • Question
    • Hypothesis
    • Prediction
    • Testing
  20. What is the Atomic Structure?
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons
  21. What is a Proton?
    +1 Charge ion
  22. What is a Neuron?
    A neutral ion
  23. What is an Electron?
    A - charged ion
  24. How many electrons can the outer shell of an atom hold?
  25. What is the mass of an electron?
    0, no mass
  26. What is the Atomic Mass?
    Protons + Neutrons = Atomic mass
  27. What is the Atomic Number?
    # of protons, unique for each element.
  28. How many electrons can Hydrogen hold in its outer shell?
  29. What is an Ionic Bond?
    • An exchange of electrons
    • Between atoms
    • Generally week
  30. What is a Covalent Bond?
    • Sharing of electrons between elements.
    • Generally strong
  31. How many Bonds can a Covalent Bond have?
    • Single
    • Double
    • Triple (Unstable)
  32. What are Electronegative Elements?
    • Have a high affinity for electrons
    • Oxygen and Nitrogen
  33. What are Non-polar Covalent Bonds?
    • Equal sharing of electrons between atoms
    • Carbon and hydrogen
    • Electrons stay near the positive charge ion more
  34. What are polar-covalent Bonds?
    • Unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
    • Oxygen and hydrogen
    • Electrons move freely
  35. What is a Hydrogen Bond?
    • Attraction between and electronegative (O and N) element and H
    • A week bond
  36. What is Hydrophilic?
    • Water attracted
    • Water loving
  37. What is Hydrophobic?
    • Dislikes water
    • Stays away
  38. What is Cohesion?
    • The attraction between water and molecules
    • (H bonding)
  39. What is Adhesion?
    The attraction between water and molecules and other charged surfaces
  40. What is the pH scale?
    • Water will dissociate (very little)
    • The concentration of hydrogen with oxygen is what changes the pH number
  41. What is the four most important elements in life?
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Hydrogen
    • Carbon
  42. What is an example of a trace element?
    • Iodine
    • Needed to make the thyroid hormone
  43. What is the mass of an Neutron?
  44. What is the Mass of a Proton?
  45. What is a specific heat?
    the amount of heat to raise a substance
  46. How many electrons are in the outer most shell of Carbon?
  47. What are the major molecule types?
    • Carbs
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
  48. What are Monocacharides?
    • Simple sugar carb
    • Pentoses -5C
    • Hexoses - 6C
  49. What are the different types of Carbs?
    • Monosacharides
    • Disaccharides
  50. What are Pentoses?
    • A five carbon sugar
    • Ribose
    • Deoxyribose
  51. What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
    The oxygen on Carbon 2
  52. What is an Isomer?
    2 Molecules with the same formula with different arrangement of groups
  53. What is a Disaccharide?
    Two simple sugars joined
  54. What are some examples of Polysaccharides?
    • Starches
    • Glycogen
    • Cellulose
  55. What is a Starch?
    • Polysaccharide
    • Glucose polymer, energy storage in plants.
  56. What is Glycogen?
    • A Polysaccharide
    • Glucose polymer, energy storage in animals
  57. What is Cellulose?
    • Polysaccharide
    • Glucose polymer, structure molecule in plants
    • We don't produce the enzyme to break down Cellulose
  58. What is a lipid?
  59. What types of fats are there?
    • Neutral fats
    • Saturated fats
    • Unsaturated fats
    • Cholesterol
  60. What are Neutral fats?
    • 3 fatty acids +1 glycerol (joined via condensation Rx)
    • Efficient means of energy storage
  61. What are saturated fats?
    No double bonds between C's (Carbons)
  62. What are Unsaturated fats?
    At least 1 double bond
  63. What is Cholesterol?
    • Part of the cell membranes
    • Starting material for synthesis of steroids hormones
    • High serum levels assoc. with heart disease
  64. What is a Phospholipid?
    • Major component of cell membranes
    • Amphipathic
  65. What is Amphipathic?
    • Polar and non-polar ends
    • Hydrophobic and hydrophyllic
  66. What makes up proteins?
    Amino acids
  67. What is the amino group of an amino acid?
    Hydrogen bonded to nitrogen on the left side
  68. What is the Carboxyl group?
    • The right with carbon double bonded to oxygen
    • and carbon is attached to hydrogen and oxygen
  69. What changes all amino acids?
    The side group
  70. How many Amino acids are there?
  71. When dealing with amino acids what is the term for a covalent bond?
    A peptide bond
  72. How are amino acids joined?
    Condensation reaction
  73. What is the primary structure of a protein?
    The order (sequence) of amino acids in the protein
  74. What is the secondary structure of a protein?
    A regular repeating structure that occurs over short distances w/in proteins
  75. What are some examples of a secondary structure of a protein?
    • Alpha Helix
    • Beta Sheets
    • Pleeted sheets
    • Random coil (not really secondary, completely random)
  76. What is the Tertiary Structure of a protein
    • The 3d shape (conformation) of a single protein chain
    • Essential for the function of most proteins
    • fragile and easily disrupted by heat or pH changes
    • Very critical to the function of the molecule
  77. What is the Quaternary Structure?
    • The arrangement of subunits of a multi-subunit protein in 3d space
    • Multiple aa chains
  78. What is a Nucleotide?
    • The building block of DNA and RNA
    • A sugar molecule (Deoxyribose, ribose) bonded to a phosphate group on the third carbon and a Nitrogen base bonded to the second carbon on the sugar.
  79. What is the different Nitrogen bases possible with DNA and RNA?
    • DNA: AGCT
    • RNA: AGCU
  80. What kind of bond is between the two bases on both sides of DNA and RNA?
    • Hydrogen bonds
    • Two hydrogen bonds between A and T
    • Three hydrogen bonds between C and G
  81. Where does DNA live?
    • Within the nucleus
    • Doesn't participate in protein synthesis
  82. What are the different types of RNA
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
    • rRNA
  83. What is mRNA?
    A "working copy" of the gene
  84. What is tRNA?
    • Carries amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
    • (Transfer)
  85. What is rRNA?
    • Part of machinery needed to make proteins
    • Ribosomal RNA
Card Set
Exam one bio
CNM BIO 1410 exam one