Parasite Review #1 (pt.2)

  1. SC Eucestoda
       O Tetraphyllidea
         F Phyllobothriidae
    • Elasmobranchs
    • 40x
    • 4 bothridia without hooks
    • Image Upload 1
  2. SC Eucestoda
       O Pseudophyllidea
    • Fish-eating carnivores (fish, bears, humans)
    • Scolex with 2 bothria (shallow muscular grooves)
    • Image Upload 2
  3. O Pseudophyllidea
       Schistocephalus Solidus
    • Coelom of stickleback (IH)
    • DS
    • Segmentation and lack of scolex
    • PITT
    • 2 Bothria
    • Image Upload 3Image Upload 4
  4. SC Eucestoda
      Order Cyclophyllidea
    • IH- fleas
    • DH- Dogs and cats
    • Diphlidium caninum
    • 100x
    • scolex with 4 acetabula- sometimes with hooked rostellum
    • *single vitelline gland at posterior of proglottids*
    • some very pathological species in humans
    • Image Upload 5Image Upload 6
  5. SC Eucestoda
       O Proteocephala
    • Freshwater fish/Herps
    • Scollex with 4 acetabula (sometimes with hooked rostellum)
    • Multiple vitellaria along lateral lines of proglottids
    • Image Upload 7
  6. Phylum Rhombozoa
       Dicyemennea spp.

    Rhombogen stage
    • DH: kidney of Octopus bimaculoides
    • Note: Infusoriform larvae, polar cells, sexual stage
    • Image Upload 8
  7. Phylum Rhombozoa
        Dicyemennea spp.

    Nematogen stage
    • DH: kidney of Octopus bimaculoides
    • Note: Vermiform larvae, polar cells, asexual stage
    • 100x
    • Image Upload 9
  8. Dissection:
    Octopus bimaculoides
    Found Trypanorynch
  9. What are the orders of Cestodes commonly found in Elasmobranchs?
    • Trypanorhynca*
    • Tetraphyllidea*
    • Lecaniephalidea
    • Litobothridea
    • Diphyllidea
  10. SC Aspidobothria
      Multicalyx sp.
    • Note: testis, large ventral sucker
    • Image Upload 10
  11. C Trematoda
      SC Aspidobothria
    • DH: Branchial chamber of freshwater clam (Unionidae)
    • Note: large ventral sucker (gumshoe-like sucker characteristic of Aspidobothria)
    • Image Upload 11
  12. C Trematoda
       SC Aspidobothria
    • DH: Bile ducts of elasmobranch
    • Note: large uterus and single, straight gut
    • Image Upload 12
  13. SC Eucestoda
      Hexacanth Egg Stage
    Image Upload 13
  14. SC Eucestoda
        Procercoid Stage
    Image Upload 14
  15. SC Eucestoda
       Plerocercoid Larva stage
    Image Upload 15Image Upload 16
  16. Dissection: Tenebrio
    Hymenolepis diminuta
    • Beetle/onchosphere dissection
    • 100x
    • Found cysticercoid onchosphere
    • Image Upload 17
    • Image Upload 18
  17. Dissection 2 Lab #7
    • Tenebrio
    • H. diminuta
    • Found hexacanth onchosphere
    • Image Upload 19
  18. SC Eucestoda
      O cyclophyllidea (Families)
    • Family Taeniidae
    • Family Hymenolepididae
    • Family Dilepididae
    • Family Mesocestoididae
  19. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
    • Have scolex with four stout acetabula (usually with rostellum)
    • lateral genital pore
    • *vitelline gland is a single, compact mass located posterior to the ovary and medialy in the proglottid*
    • ovary is situated medially and is often bilobed with small ootype located betwen its lobes
    • Testes are follicuar and numerous (except Hymenolepis)
    • Eggs of this order have a thick, radially-striated embyrophore (protective outer layer surrounding embryo)
  20. SC Eucestoda
      O Cyclophyllidea (life history)
    • Do not require 2nd IH (so plerocercoid stage is skipped)
    • 1IH has no procercoid stage
    • Has cysticercoid (mammals) or cysticercus stage (inverts)
  21. SC Eucestoda
        O Cyclophyllidea
          F. Taeniidae
    • Have cysticercus
    • IH = Mammals
  22. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Taenia saginata
    • "Beef Tapeworm"
    • only humans serve as DH and cattle often serve as IH
    • *no rostellum*
    • 15-20 lateral branches per side
    • larval worms cysts - cysticercus
    • Image Upload 20
  23. SC Eucestoda  
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Taenia solium
    • DH- Humans
    • IH- Pigs (sometimes humans)
    • When humans accidentally ingest eggs, larvae encyst in various tissues and cause severe pathology
    • rostellum with 2 rows of hooks
    • 7-13 lateral branches per side
    • Cysticerci become large fluid filled sacs surrounding the invaginated scolex- aka "bladder worms"
    • Image Upload 21Image Upload 22
  24. Compare T. saginata and T. solium
    Image Upload 23
  25. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Taenia muliceps
    • DH- Carnivores (esp. dogs)
    • IH- Herbivorous mammals
    • encyst in IH forming a coenurus- type of bladder worm that develops gradually and the inner layer of the bladder becomes a germinal layer from which protoscolices arise by the hundreds inside the bladder
    • asexual budding of protoscolices
    • Image Upload 24Image Upload 25
  26. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Echinococcus granulosus
    • DH- Carnivores & canines
    • IH- Herbivores & humans
    • If humans are infected as IH they get hydatidosis
    • Adults possess an armed rostellum
    • *strobila usually only consists of 3 proglottids*
    • 46-65 testes
    • Image Upload 26
  27. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Echinococcus granulosus (cyst)
    • forms unilocular hydatid cyst
    • hydatid grows very large and holds a sac full of brood capuses- texture is referred to as "hydatid sand"cysts can grow to hold 15 quarts of fluid!
    • Image Upload 27Image Upload 28
  28. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Taeniidae
             Echinococcus multilocularis
    • DH: Foxes, Dogs, cats, coyotes
    • IH: Rodents
    • multilocular hydatid bud germinal layers external to the origninal hydatid to produce masses of hydatids that can spread drastically throughout host tissues
    • 15-30 testes
    • Image Upload 29
  29. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
         F Hymenolepididae
    • *1-4 testes*
    • cysticercoid
    • IH = arthropods
  30. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Hymenolepididae
            Hymeolepis nana
    • IH= optional
    • DH= Rodents and humans
    • Does NOT have hooks
    • Image Upload 30Image Upload 31
  31. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Hymenolepididae
             Hymenolepis diminuta
    • "Rat Tapeworm"
    • DH- Rats and humans
    • IH- grain beetles (Tenebrio spp)
    • rostellum without hooks
    • *no genital pore*
    • adult worms pass eggs with the feces of the rat
    • hooked oncosphere emerges, burrows out of the gut and encysts in the hemocoel called a cysticercoid
    • rats ingest infected beetles
    • Image Upload 32cystocercoid ^
    • Image Upload 33
    • Image Upload 34
  32. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Dilepididae
            Dipylidium caninum
    • DH- Dogs and cats
    • IH- Fleas
    • Each proglottid has 2 sets of reproductive organs, apparent by *2 genital pores opening at either side of each proglottid*
    • rostellum with hooks
    • Image Upload 35Image Upload 36Gravid
  33. SC Eucestoda
       O Cyclophyllidea
          Family Mesocestoididae
    • IH rodents and reptiles
    • DH birds and mammals
    • cysticercoid
    • 4 suckers, no rostellum
    • only one that undergoes asexual reproduction in DH
    • Image Upload 37
  34. Phylum Nematoda
    • Order Strongylida
    •    F Trichostrongylidae
    •    F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
    • Order Oxyurida (pinworms)
    • Order Enoplida (whipworms)
    • Order Ascaridida (roundworms)
  35. Nematodes Info
    • Most with direct life cycles, few with IH
    • paratenic host- parasite can survive but not necessary for LC
    • Dauer juveniles- arrested development
    • Eutely- Number of cells remains constant through out life of adult (cell enlargment)
  36. Phylum Nematoda (morphology)
    • bilatterally symmetrical, long, slender, and tapering at both ends
    • movement is distinctly sinusoidal
    • outer body is covered by a cuticle (protects from dessication, a barrier to host immune response, and a turgid surface for hydrostatic muscle contraction
    • have separate sexes with high degree of sexual dimorphism
    • testes elongate throughout the body
    • copulatory spicules at posterior end of worm (used to hold vulva open)
    • bursa in some are used to grasp females
    • cuticle is molted a number of times during larval development
  37. Phylum Nematoda
       O strongylida
         F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
    • Possess a buccal capsule (large and scleroritzed "mouth" that is armed with cutting plates, teeth or lancet-like structures)
    • J3 is infective stage (eventually make it to the alveoli in lungs)
    • pathology is intensity dependent
    • eggs are large and oval
    • males hve large bursa with rays
    • Necator americanus
    • Anycylostoma duodenale
    • Ancylostoma caninum
    • Haemonchus contortus
  38. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Necator americanus
    • Human hookworm
    • Buccal capsule has cutting plates
    • Note lack of teeth
    • May have paratenic hosts
    • Image Upload 38
  39. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
              Necator americanus (male)
    • Image Upload 39
    • Note copulatory bursa
    • Note spicules fused distally
  40. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Angiostrongulus cantonensis
    • IH slugs and snails
    • DH lungs of rats
    • Infection by ingestion of IH
    • Image Upload 40
  41. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Angiostrongylus cantonensis (male)
    • Note prominent spicules
    • Image Upload 41
  42. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
    • Intestine of cold-blooded verts
    • IH- freshwater copepods
    • Note buccal capsule with pair of large sclerotized valves
    • Image Upload 42
  43. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Ancylostoma caninum
    • Dog hookworm
    • juveniles that penetrate humans can cause "creeping eruption" or cutaneous larval migrations, since larvae are "lost" in the wrong host
    • J4 developmental arrest
    • Image Upload 43
    • Note buccal capsule carrying plates with teeth
  44. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Ancylostomatidae (hookworms)
          Ancylostoma caninum (m & f)
    • Female: Note lack of copulatory bursa on posterior end
    • Image Upload 44
    • Copulatory bursa of male Ancylostoma caninum- Note that spicules are not fusedImage Upload 45

    Image Upload 46
  45. Family Trichostrongylidae
    • Small buccal capsule
    • J3 crawl to vegetation
  46. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Trichostrongylidae (hookworms)
          Haemonchus contortus
    • Sheep hookworm; lives in 4th stomach: abomasum
    • causes major losses in affected livestock
    • buccal capsule is small and has a single tooth
    • "barber pole worm"
    • Image Upload 47
  47. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Trichostrongylidae (hookworms)
          Haemonchus contortus (female)
    • Image Upload 48
    • Note vulva flap
  48. P Nematoda
      O Strongylida
        F Trichostrongylidae (hookworms)
          Haemonchus contortus (male)
    Note two prominent spicules with barbs at the tips

    Image Upload 49Image Upload 50
Card Set
Parasite Review #1 (pt.2)
Parasites #2