Psych 139 Final Chapter 1

  1. The study of personality as the study of individual differences.
    • Consistent patterns of
    • behavior but may be small differences when compared to general.
  2. The 6 approaches to
    • 1) Psychoanalytic
    • 2) Trait
    • 3) Biological
    • 4) Humanistic
    • 5) Behavioral/Social learning
    • 6) Cognitive
  3. main focus of each of the 6 approaches to personality-
    Unconscious minds are responsible for important differences in their behavior styles
  4. main focus of each of the 6 approaches to personality-
    • Where on the continuum of
    • various personality characteristics.
  5. main focus of each of the 6 approaches to personality-
    • – inherited predispositions
    • and physiological processes to explain individual differences in personality.
  6. main focus of each of the 6 approaches to personality-
    ) Humanistic
    • – identify personal
    • responsibility and feelings of self-acceptance as the key cause of differences
    • in personality
  7. main focus of each of the 6 approaches to personality-
    Behavioral/Social learning
    • explain consistent behavior
    • patterns as the result of conditioning and expectations
  8. main focus of each of the 6 approaches to personality-
    • – look at differences in
    • the way people process information to explain differences in personality
  9. The relationships between the 6 approaches to personality
    • Sometimes they differ only in emphasis, many of them are similar, Ex. Behavioral is deterministic (we may not be aware of the way we have been ‘conditioned’) where as the
    • Humanistic believes in free will.
  10. Personality and culture
    • Individualistic- cultures place great emphasis on individual
    • needs and accomplishments. Collectivist- cultures are concerned about group belongingness and group needs. Concepts that are studied by Western personality
    • psychologists can take on very different meanings when people from collectivist cultures are studied. EX> Western notion of self-esteem is based on assumptions of personal goals and feelings of uniqueness that may not be appropriate to people in collectivist group-oriented cultures. Similarly, Western def. of achievement and success is not universal. In collectivist cultures success means cooperation and groups accomplishments.
  11. The components of theory.
    • Theory- each approach to
    • understanding personality begins with a theory. The theory is an attempt to
    • explain the mechanisms that underlie human personality and how these mechanisms
    • are responsible for creating behaviors unique to a given individual. Also each
    • theory attempts to emphasize a different aspect of personality, each theory
    • must wrestle with several issues relating to the nature of human personality.
  12. The components of theory-application
    • Application- The most obvious application of personality theories is in psychotherapy. Many of the major pioneers in the study of personality were clinicians, who developed
    • their ideas about human nature of the basis of their work with clients. Psychotherapy comes in many styles, reflecting the assumptions the therapist makes about the nature of personality.
  13. The components of theory- research
    • Research- Each of the theories we will examine generates a great deal of research. Sometimes this research tests
    • principles and assumptions central to the theory. Other times researchers are interested in further exploring concepts introduced by the theory.
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Psych 139 Final Chapter 1
Psych 139 Final Chapter 1