A&P 2

  1. Endocrine and nervous system are sometimes put together and known as what?
    System of control
  2. The NS effect and duration is what?
    Effect is LOCALIZED and duration is VERY SHORT
  3. The Endocrine System's effect and duration is what?
    Effect is GENERAL and duration is MUCH LONGER
  4. 2 types of glands in the body?
    Exocrine and Endocrine
  5. What are Exocrine glands?
    glands that secrete product through a duct onto a body surface or into a body cavity
  6. Is there an exocrine system?
    NO...exocrine glands are parts of other systems
  7. What are Endocrine glands?
    glands that secrete their product (hormones) directly into the blood without a duct
  8. What are hormones?
    Products of an endocrine gland
  9. What make up the Endocrine system?
    Endocrine glands
  10. Are endocrine glands vascular?
    YES...endocrine glands are some of the most vascular tissue in the body because they secrete their product directly into the blood
  11. What is Target Tissue?
    cells that have receptor sites for a particular hormone are said to be that hormones target tissue and is the only tissue that hormone effects
  12. Name 2 types of hormones
    Protein and Steroid
  13. What are protein hormones?
    Proteins or Protein derivatives.
  14. Where are Protein hormone's receptor cells? Why are they there?
    Receptor cells are ON THE CELL MEMBRANE. Membrane is made of phospholipids and protein hormones CANNOT pass through
  15. What type of hormone are most hormones?
  16. Which are faster acting, Protein or Steroid hormones? Why?
    • Protein are because molecules already exist inside the cell and simply need activated.
    • Steroid hormones must create mRNA and proteins from scratch inside the cell and therefore are slower acting
  17. What are steroid hormones?
    Lipid derivatives (derivatives of cholesterol)
  18. Where are steroid hormone's receptor sites? Why?
    IN THE CYTOPLASM of the cell. Steroid hormones are deriv. of lipids and can pass thru the cell membrane (made of phospholipids)
  19. Why must hormone levels be regulated within narrow limits?
    • Because hormones are VERY potant
    • small amts have BIG effect
  20. What are the 3 main methods of hormone regulation? Which is the most common?
    • Negative feedback- Most common
    • Tropic hormones
    • Direct nervous stimulation
  21. Explain Negative Feedback hormone regulation
    • Gland is sensitive to the levels of substance that the hormone REGULATES (NOT hormone levels)
    • Pulls it back to center

    ex pancreas sensitive to glucose levels high or low adjusts how much insulin we do or dont need
  22. Explain Tropic hormones regulation
    glands secrete hormones in response to other (tropic hormone

    gland A secretes hormone a(tropic)--->causes gland b to produce Hormone b
  23. Explain Direct Nervous Stimulation
    EX- Sympathetic ns stimulates adrenal to produce epinephrine and norepinephrine
  24. What is another term for Pituitary gland?
  25. What is the Pituitary gland connected to the hypothalamus by?
  26. What does the Hypophysis produce?
    GH or growth hormone
  27. What is another name for the anterior pituitary gland?
  28. How are the adenohypophysis's secretions regulated?
    hypothalamus relases hormones into the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system(vein and capillary network in infundibulum) which carries them to anterior pituitary regulating secretions
  29. What is another name for the posterior pituitary gland?
  30. How are the neurohypophysis's hormones regulated?
    axons from hypothalamus travel down infundibulumand terminate in the neurohypophysis
  31. Whare is the Thyroid gland?
    next to trachea and below the larynx
  32. What does the thyroid gland produce?
    thyroxine, triiodothyronine and calcitonin
  33. What do both the thyroxine and triiodothyronine hormones require for synthesis?
  34. What does Calcitonin do? What are the 3 ways it does this?

    • -decreases osteoclast activity
    • -decreases reabsorption of calcium by kidneys
    • -decreases absorption of calcium by intestines
  35. Where are the adrenal glands?
    One on top of each kidney
  36. What are the two parts to adrenal glands?
    cortex and medulla
  37. What is the adrenal cortex? What does it do?
    OUTER part of the adrenal glands

    Produces Steroid hormones
  38. What is the adrenal Medulla? What does it do?
    INNER part of adrenal glands

    produces protein hormones epinephrine and norepinphrine
  39. What is special about protein hormones epinephrine and norepinphrine?
    THEY ARE SYNERGISTIC (work together)
  40. What is a ganglion?
    Cluster of cells
  41. Is the pancreas endo or exo crine gland? Why?

    • Exocrine b/c it secretes digestive enzymes into duodenum
    • and
    • Endocrine because it produces hormones insulin and glucagon directly into blood
  42. What are the islets of Langerhans?
    • IN THE PANCREAS- over a million small groups of cells that contain both alpha(glucagon producing) and beta(insulin producing) cells
    • WIDESPREAD throughout pancreas. Not localized to one area or another
  43. What makes up the urinary system?
    • 2 Kidneys
    • 2 Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
  44. What are 4 functions of the urinary system?
    • Rids body of wastes
    • Regulates fluid volume
    • Controls blood ph
    • Maintains electrolye concentrations

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  45. What do the Ureters do?
    urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
  46. What does the Urethra do?
    urine from urinary bladder to the outside world
  47. What does the Urinary bladder do?
    stores urine until micturation (urination)
  48. What is the Mucous membrane of the bladder?
    it is an inner lining of TRANSITIONAL epithelium
  49. What are rugae in the bladder?
    folds in mucosa that act like pleats in a curtain allowing further expansion of the bladder (keeps it from tearing)
  50. What is the specialized smooth muscle in the bladder referred to as?
    detrusor muscle (stretchy)
  51. What do the kidneys do?
    filter blood and produce urine
  52. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
    the nephron
  53. Name the two parts of the Nephron. What is each's function?
    Renal corpuscle-Filtration

    Renal tubule-reabsorption
  54. Name the two parts of the renal corpuscle and explain
    -Glomerulus-cluster of capillaries

    -Bowmans capsule-double layered epithelial capsule that surrounds glomerulus
  55. Name the three parts of the renal tubule
    -proximal convoluted tubule

    -Nephron loop

    -distal convoluted tubule
  56. What are one of the main pH regulators of the body?
    The Kidneys
  57. What percentage of body weight is attributed to Body Fluids? Breakdown
    60% attributed to body wt

    2/3 intracellular

    • 1/3 extracellular-4/5 of extracellular is interstitial
    • 1/5 of extracellular is blood plasma
  58. What is interstitial fluid?
    The fluid found in tissue cells
  59. What are electrolytes?
    dissolve in a solution to form ions (charged particles)
  60. What are Cations?
    Positively charged ions
  61. What are Anions?
    Negatively charged ions
Card Set
A&P 2
Endocrine System/Urinary System