1. Developmental Theory
    A systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older (ERIKSON)
  2. Psychoanalytic Theory
    A grand theory, interprets human development in terms of inner drives and motives, many of which are irrational and unconscious. (FREUD)
  3. Behaviorism
    A grand theory, emphasizes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned; also called learning theory (WATSON)
  4. Conditioning
    The learning process that occurs either through the association of two stimuli or through the use of positive or negative reinforcement or punishment
  5. Classical Conditioning
    The process by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful one so that both are responded to in the same way (PAVLOV's dogs)
  6. Operant Conditioning
    The process by which a response is gradually learned through reinforcement or punishment (SKINNER)
  7. Reinforcement
    The process by which a particular action is followed by something desired
  8. Social Learning Theory
    Emphasizes that people often learn new behaviors through observation and imitation of other people
  9. Modeling
    Refers to the process by which we observe other people's behavior and then copy it
  10. Self-Efficacy
    Is the belief that one is effective
  11. Cognitive Theory
    A grand theory, emphasizes that the way people think and understand the world shapes their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
  12. Cognitive Equilibrium
    A state of mental balance, in which a person's thoughts about the world seem not to clash with each other or with his or her experiences (PIAGET)
  13. Assimilation
    The process by which new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into old ideas (PIAGET)
  14. Accommodation
    The process in which old ideas are restructured to incorporate new experiences (PIAGET)
  15. Information Processing
    A perspective that compares human thinking processes to the way a computer analyzes data
  16. Sociocultural Theory
    Seeks to explain development as the result of a dynamic interaction between developing persons and the surrounding social and cultural forces
  17. Apprenticeship in thinking
    The process by which each person develops new competencies by learning from skilled mentors (VYGOTSKY)
  18. Zone of Proximal Development
    The range of skills, knowledge, and concepts the child is close to acquiring but cannot master without help
  19. Humanism
    A theory that stresses the shared basic needs of all people, and the potential of all human for good (MASLOW)
  20. Selective Adaptation 
    The process by which humans and other species gradually adjust to their environment.
  21. Eclectic Perspective
    Accept elements from several theories, instead of adhering to only a single perspective
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