Diseases of Pregnancy

  1. Etiology of spontaneous abortion
    fetal: genetic or acquired abnormality. maternal: infectious (toxo; myco; listeria); uterine abnormalities; trauma.
  2. Micro of spontaneous abortion
    decidual necrosis with neutrophilic infiltration; thrombi and hemorrhage within necrotic material
  3. life threatening condition associated with postpartum bleeding. similarly life threatening condition associated with antepartum bleeding.
    Placenta accreta-on myometrium. Placenta previa- through myometrium.
  4. Three basic type of twin placenta
    dichorionic diamnionic; monochorionic diamnionic; monochorionic monoamnionic
  5. Potential complication of monochorionic pregnancies leading to abnormal sharing
    twin-twin transfusion
  6. infection of placenta; fetal membranes; and umbilical cord
    placentitis/villitis; chorioamnionitis; funisitis
  7. Gross and micro finding to chorioamnionitis
    Gross: opaque/yellow/purulent membranes. Micro: see neutrophils.
  8. meconium staining
    Gross discoloration; vacuolation of amniotic epithelium. Brown granularly pigmented macrophages.
  9. Pathogenesis of placental infection and consequences
    Ascending-premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Hematogenous (transplacental) from TORCH.
  10. White bumbs on fetal surfaces-pathogenesis and consequence
    squamous metaplasia- cannot be scraped off. amnion nodosum-can be scraped off-associated w/ oligohydramnios.
  11. amniotic band syndrome
    earl yrupture sequence- amnion wrap around developing extremety. a disruption
  12. Preeclampsia
    hypertension; proteinuria and edema
  13. eclampsia; risks
    preeclapsia plus convulsions. HELLP syndrome; hemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets.
  14. Pathogenesis of eclampsia
    shallow implantation; remodling- reduced blood flow to placenta-vasoconstrictor release from placenta-endothelia damage-coagulation-DIC-lesions in liver; kidney; brain; pituitary; placenta.
  15. Placental changes in pre-eclampsia
    placental infarcts; retroplacental hematomas; syncytial knots; fibrinoid necrosis and atherosisi
  16. Placental infarct gross:
    early see red (hemmorhagic); later see white.
  17. Placental abruption: definition; pathophys; risks; presentation.
    Premature separation of placenta. Hemorrhage into decidual basalis. Risk: htn; trauma; cocaine; smoking; PROM; previous abruption. Vaginal bleeding and uterine tenderness.
  18. Trophoblastic diseases
    hydatidiform mole; invasive mole; choriocarcinoma; placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT)
  19. gross description hydatidaform mole.
    cystic swelling of chorionic villi; trophoblastic proliferation
  20. T/F Hydatidiform mole precede choriocarcinoma
  21. Symptoms of hydatidiform mole
    vaginal bleeding; larger than expected growth; elevated B-HCG
  22. Pathogenisis and characteristics of complete mole
    no embryonic develpment; no fetal parts. all villi are diordered and dilated. Paternal genetic material only. progresses to choriocarcinoma
  23. Pathogenesis and characteristics of partial mole
    fetal parts present. vilous hydrops only a portion of villi. triploid/tetraploidy from double amount of paternal dna
  24. Invasive mole
    mole that penetrate/perforate uterine wall. SIgns similar to regular mole (vaginal bleeding and irregular uterine enlargement with elevated HCG). Response well to chemo.
  25. choriocarcinoma etiology; groos and micro description. clincal course.
    Trophoblastic cells are precursors. soft/fleshy/yellow tumor with area of necrosis. anaplastic cells; no villi. blood with B-HCG elevation.
  26. Etiology of placental site trophoblastic tumor
    trophoblasts at residual placental site following pregnancy. cought early good prognosis
  27. common site of ectopic pregnancy
    fallopian tubes
  28. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy
    PID; chronic salphingitis; peritubal adhesions; endometriosis; leiomyomas; surgery
Card Set
Diseases of Pregnancy