Chapter 16.4.4

  1. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    Male Opinion
    • a.      Debates called querelles des femmes—arguments about women
    •                                                               i.      Male opinions: not favorable
    • 1.      Women base, prone to vice, and sexually insatiable (medieval view) who needed to be controlled by men
    • a.      Learned women viewed as having overcome female liabilities to become like men
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      One man in praise of a woman scholar said her writings were so good you wouldn’t think it was a woman 
  2. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    Women Opinions
    •                                                               i.      Women: we have rational minds and could grow from education; women are pious, chaste, and temperate, with no need for male authority
    • 1.      Education was key to women’s ability to move into world
  3. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    Science and Attempts
    • a.      Science not an instrument for liberation by supporter for old views about woman’s place
    • b.      Attempt to illustrate human body and skeleton
    •                                                               i.      Vesalius: portrayal of physical differences between males and females was limited to external bodily form and sexual organs
    • 1.      No difference in skeletons (men and women equal)
  4. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    18th Century
    •                                                               i.      18th century: new anatomy prevailed
    • 1.      Drawings of female skeletons showed larger pelvic area and smaller skullsà inferior
    • a.      Pelvic area proved they were to be childbearers
    • b.      Larger skull of man: superior mind 
  5. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    17th- 18th Century
    • a.      17th-18th century, women lost traditional spheres of influence once possessed, especially in science-related art of midwifery
    •                                                               i.      Women who were midwives were responsible for birthing
    •                                                             ii.      Similar to barbersurgeons or apothecaries, they got skills through apprenticeship
  6. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    Impact of Sci. Rev.
    • 1.      Impact of Scientific Revolution caused traditional crafts to be upgraded and even professionalized as males took over
    • a.      When medical men entered this arena, they began using devices and techniques derived from anatomical study
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Justified male takeover of traditional role of midwives
  7. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    By 18th, midwives...
    • 1.      By 18th century, midwives accessories to art they once controlled, except among poor
    • a.      Little money to be made in serving lower classesà midwives continued to practice traditional art among them 
  8. I.                   Debates on the Nature of Women
    • a.      Overall, Scientific Revolution reaffirmed traditional ideas about women
    •                                                               i.      Male scientists spread view that women inferior by nature, subordinate to men, and suited to play domestic role as mothers
    • 1.      Books ensured continuation of ideas
    • a.      Jean de La Bruyere remarked that an educated woman was like a gun that was a collector’s item 
Card Set
Chapter 16.4.4
Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science