Chapter 16.3.1 and 2

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  1. Advances in Medicine and Chemistry
    • a.      Medicine field transformed
    •                                                               i.      Late medieval medicine dominated by Galen, not Aristotle
  2. Advances in Medicine and Chemistry
    •                                                               i.      Influenced anatomy, physiology, and disease
    •                                                             ii.      Relied on animal dissection, not human, to picture human anatomy= inaccurate
    • 1.      Still, Europeans used his instruction on anatomy
  3. Advances in Medicine and Chemistry
    Galen Physiology
    •                                                               i.      Physiology dominated by Galenic hypotheses, including belief in two separate blood systems
    • 1.      One= muscular with bright red blood moving up and down through arteries
    • 2.      Other by digestive functions and dark red blood that flowed through veins 
  4. Advances in Medicine and Chemistry
    Galen Treatment
    •                                                               i.      Treatment of disease influenced by bodily humors= imbalanced
    • 1.      Blood (warm/ moist), phlegm (cold/ moist), yellow bile (warm/dry), black bile (cold/dry)
    • 2.      Purging, bleeding, or herbal medicines
  5. I.                   Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim)
    a.      born in Zurich; awarded medical degree from UFerrara; appointed city physician and professor of medicine at Basel in 1527; contempt for universities and physicians who didn’t agree with his ideas led to position being short lived
  6. I.                   Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim)
    • a.      rejected Aristotle and Galen and attacked universities as centers of their moribund philosophy
    •                                                               i.      wanted to replace the traditional system with new chemical philosophy based on new understanding of nature derived from fresh observation and experiment
  7. I.                   Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim)
    Chemical Philosophy
    • 1.      chemical philosophy connected to view of universe based on macrocosm-microcosm analogy
    • a.      human= small replica (microcosm) of larger world (macrocosm)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      all parts of universe in each person 
  8. I.                   Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim)
    Chemical Reactions
    • a.      chemical reactions of the universe as a whole were reproduced in human beings on a smaller scale
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      disease not from humor imbalance but chemical imbalances that were localized in specific organs and could be treated with chemical remedies
  9. I.                   Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim)
    Differed from other chemical remedies
    1.      differed from other chemical remedies by giving careful attention to the proper dosage of their chemically prepared metals and minerals
  10. I.                   Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim)
    Turned against
    • a.      turned against Galenic principle that “contraries cure” in favor of “like cures like”
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      poison that caused disease was cure if used in proper form and quantity
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      this use of toxic substances to cure patients, despite effectiveness, was viewed as homicide
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iii.      today, he is viewed as father of modern medicine 
Card Set
Chapter 16.3.1 and 2
Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science
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