
I. Newton
Background
 a. Born in English Woolsthorpe in 1642; went to Cambridge
 i. Closed due to fear of plague; returned to Woolsthorpe, where he discovered talents
 1. Invented calculus; began investigating the composition of light; started work on law of gravitation
 ii. Open again and received chair in mathematics at universityà Principia

I. Newton
Job
 a. Received administrative post as warden of the royal mint and was promoted to master of the mint until his death
 i. President of the Royal Society in 1703 and knighted in 1705 for great achievementsà only scientist in Westminster Abbey

I. Newton
Interests
 a. Interested in occult world
 i. Studied alchemy and experimented with it
 b. Representative of the Hermetic tradition but repressed for Western science rep

I. Newton
Universal Law of Gravitation
 a. Universal Law of Gravitation
 i. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, known as Principia, was his major work
 1. Spelled out mathematical proofs demonstrating his universal law of gravitation

I. Newton
His Work was what?
 a. His work was culmination of theories of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler
 i. Each undermined part of PtolemaicAristotelian cosmology= he pieced them together for new cosmology

I. Newton
First book
 a. Defined basic concepts of mechanics by elaborating the three laws of motion
 i. Every object in state of rest or uniform motion in straight line unless deflected by force
 ii. Rate of change of motion of an object is proportional to the force acting on it
 iii. To every action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction

I. Newton
Book Three
 a. Theories of mechanics applied to problems of astronomy by demonstrating that the three laws of motion govern the planetary bodies as well as terrestrial objects
 i. Universal law of gravitation important to this
 1. Explained why planetary bodies didn’t go off in straight lines but continued in elliptical orbits about the sun
 2. He explained that every object in the universe was attracted to every other object with a directly proportional force to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between then

I. Newton
Implications of universal law
 i. Implications of universal law
 1. Century before recognized
 2. Demonstrated that one universal law could explain all motion in universe, from planets to apple from tree
 3. Secrets of world revealed through human investigations

I. Newton
Newtonian Synthesis
 a. Newtonian Synthesis created new cosmology in which world was seen largely in mechanistic terms
 i. Universe= one huge, regulated, and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time, space and motion
 1. Although he believed God was everywhere present and acted as force of all, he dropped spiritual assumptions

I. Newton
Worldmachine
a. Worldmachine: operating absolutely in time, space, and motion, dominated Western worldview until the twentieth century when the Einsteinian revolution superseded the Newton one

I. Newton
Ideas
 a. Ideas accepted in England
 i. National philosophers on the Continent resisted his ideas, and by 18^{th} century, accepted everywhere; reinforced by developments in other fields, especially medicine

