Chapter 16.2.6

  1. I.                   Newton
    • a.      Born in English Woolsthorpe in 1642; went to Cambridge
    •                                                               i.      Closed due to fear of plague; returned to Woolsthorpe, where he discovered talents
    • 1.      Invented calculus; began investigating the composition of light; started work on law of gravitation
    •                                                             ii.      Open again and received chair in mathematics at universityà Principia
  2. I.                   Newton
    • a.      Received administrative post as warden of the royal mint and was promoted to master of the mint until his death
    •                                                               i.      President of the Royal Society in 1703 and knighted in 1705 for great achievementsà only scientist in Westminster Abbey
  3. I.                   Newton
    • a.      Interested in occult world
    •                                                               i.      Studied alchemy and experimented with it
    • b.      Representative of the Hermetic tradition but repressed for Western science rep
  4. I.                   Newton
    Universal Law of Gravitation
    • a.      Universal Law of Gravitation
    •                                                               i.      Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, known as Principia, was his major work
    • 1.      Spelled out mathematical proofs demonstrating his universal law of gravitation
  5. I.                   Newton
    His Work was what?
    • a.      His work was culmination of theories of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Each undermined part of Ptolemaic-Aristotelian cosmology= he pieced them together for new cosmology
  6. I.                   Newton
    First book
    • a.      Defined basic concepts of mechanics by elaborating the three laws of motion
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Every object in state of rest or uniform motion in straight line unless deflected by force
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Rate of change of motion of an object is proportional to the force acting on it
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      To every action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction
  7. I.                   Newton
    Book Three
    • a.      Theories of mechanics applied to problems of astronomy by demonstrating that the three laws of motion govern the planetary bodies as well as terrestrial objects
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Universal law of gravitation important to this
    • 1.      Explained why planetary bodies didn’t go off in straight lines but continued in elliptical orbits about the sun
    • 2.      He explained that every object in the universe was attracted to every other object with a directly proportional force to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between then 
  8. I.                   Newton
    Implications of universal law
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Implications of universal law
    • 1.      Century  before recognized
    • 2.      Demonstrated that one universal law could explain all motion in universe, from planets to apple from tree
    • 3.      Secrets of world revealed through human investigations
  9. I.                   Newton
    Newtonian Synthesis
    • a.      Newtonian Synthesis created new cosmology in which world was seen largely in mechanistic terms
    •                                                               i.      Universe= one huge, regulated, and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time, space and motion
    • 1.      Although he believed God was everywhere present and acted as force of all, he dropped spiritual assumptions
  10. I.                   Newton
    a.      World-machine: operating absolutely in time, space, and motion, dominated Western worldview until the twentieth century when the Einsteinian revolution superseded the Newton one
  11. I.                   Newton
    • a.      Ideas accepted in England
    •                                                               i.      National philosophers on the Continent resisted his ideas, and by 18th century, accepted everywhere; reinforced by developments in other fields, especially medicine
Card Set
Chapter 16.2.6
Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science