What is deindividuation?
When you don't feel personally identifiable or responsible for your behavior
Give some examples of situations that create deindividuation
- Initiations, wearing disguises, riots, and online
- * In uniform, a special form of deindividuation occurs, Personal self-control (conscience) vanishes, but the group retains control
What are the characteristics of the deindividuated state?
What are some examples of social pressure bringing out the worst in human beings?
What is the best method for studying the power of the social situation?
- Experimental studies of...
- - obedience and authority
- - conformity to a group's will
- - unresponsive witnesses to an emergency: the "Bystander Effect"
When Milgram put normal (and unsuspecting) adult reserach participants in a situation where they were ordered to torure another human being, what did the experts predict would happen?
They predicted that the subjects would stop after hearing the volunteer saying "stop" (discontinued)
What actually happened in Milgram's experiment? What percentage of participants obeyed orders to deliver even the most dangerous electric shocks?
There were people who continued shocking the volunteer, obeyed the authoritative figure
What conclusion did Milgram reach about the human potential for evil?
How is conformity different from obedience?
action in accord with prevailing social standards, attitudes, practices, etc.
What did Asch's studies of conformity to an incorrect majority teach us about human beings' willingness togo along with the group? About situations in which a minority can refuse to conform?
Most people caved in a went with the wrong judgement
Do groups always make more careful,conservative decisions that individuals?
What are some examples of groups making more
radical, risky decisions? In what kind of situation does this
- being accused of a crime, having a
- jury ( more than one person) or judge
- -The jury is more likely to make a
- reasonable and unbiased decision
- - Judge may be in a bad mood, may not
- like you
- - One person does not only run the governement
What is the group polarization effect?
* groups make more extreme decisions than individuals do
What are two explanations to the group polarization effect?
- 1. exposure to persuasive argument
- 2. Wanting to be "above average"
What did many Americans conclude about New Yorker's personalities after the murder of Kitty Genovese?
"They don't care about anybody but themselves"
What did social psychologist suspect had happened, with Genovese's situation?
- - social pressure that holds people from doing the right things
- - not sure if it's an emergency
what is pluralistic ignorance ? Give an example
People often wait for someone else to decide if an ambiguous situation is an emergency
What is the diffusion of responsibility? Give an example
- -Even in a very clear emergency, each person may ask, "why should I be the one to risk it?"
- - the more people around that could help, the less likely it is that someone WILL help
How do social psychologist deine prejudice?
Prejudice is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based solely that person's membership in a group
What is discrimination?
Discrimination is the behavior: avoiding members of the group, or excluding them from opportunity
How does classical conditioning help to explain prejudice?
How does operant conditioning help to explain prejudice?
How can observational learning account for prejudice?
Describe the six love attitudes
- Eros: Passionate/ erotic love
- Storge: Companionate love
- Ludus: Game-playing love
Which of the love attitudes contribute to long-term stability and satisfaction on the relationship?
Which of the love attitudes are harmful to long-term stability and satisfaction in the relationship?