Euro Review 1

  1. Wycliffe
    English Friar who criticized the clergy, taxes, and doctrine of transubstantiiation.
  2. Hus
    A Czech priest with similar criticisms of Wycliffe's who led a revolt in Bohemia against the pope, and was thus burned at the stake.
  3. Great Schism
    One of the popes moved its location to Avignon in France as multiple popes fought for control of the papacy during this event.
  4. Constantinople
    The Ottoman Empire rose as a serious threat to Christian Europe after the fall of this city and its thus renaming to Istanbul.
  5. Hundred Years War
    Long-lasting conflict between the French and English due to princes having claims to each other's throne.
  6. War of the Roses
    War continuing in England between the Lancastrians and the Yorks that led to the Tudor dynasty gaining control of England.
  7. Chaucer
    Portrayed a wide variety of English life in his book, The Canterbury Tales.
  8. Black Death
    Caused a severe shortage of peasants and urban workers due to the massive loss of population in the mid 1300s.
  9. Isabelle
    A united Spain was created because of this ruler from Castile
  10. Ferdinand
    Along with Isabelle, this ruler from Aragon also helped in Spain's reunification efforts.
  11. Renaissance
    French for "rebirth", a reawakening of interest in the classical past.
  12. Humanism
    Study of writings of the classical past, with studies of rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and philosphy.
  13. Medici
    The leading Florentine political family.
  14. Petrarch
    Wrote in both Latin and Italian, encouraged the study of ancient Rome and is considered the father of humanism.
  15. Boccaccio
    Wrote the Decameron, which were meant to amuse the reader.
  16. Castiglione
    Wrote the Book of the Courtier, which specified the qualities necessary for a gentleman who would need to lead an active life, not contemplative like the Middle Ages were.
  17. Donatello
    He is the father of Renaissance sculpture, worked with Bronze, and equestrian designs, and sculpted David in 1440.
  18. Leonardo Da Vinci
    Produced the Last Supper and Mona Lisa as well as many mechanical designs.
  19. Raphael
    A master of Renaissance grace and style, theory and technique in The School of Athens.
  20. Michelangelo
    Produced masterpieces in sculpture (David) and painting (The Sistine Chapel Ceiling) and whose work was an introduction to mannerism.
  21. Machiavelli
    Wrote The Prince, which analyzed politics from the standpoint of reason, rather than faith or tradition.
  22. Gutenberg
    Invented movable type, which facilitated the spread of new ideas through Europe.
  23. Durer
    Perfected the woodcut, which gave realism and individualism to the arts that combined words and images.
  24. Erasmus
    Leader of Northern Humanism whose In Praise of Folly satirizes the ambitions of the world, especially the clergy. It is said he "laid the egg that Luther hatched."
  25. Sir Thomas More
    English lawyer, politician, and humanist who wrote Utopia that mixed civic humanism with religious ideals and thus describe the perfect society.
  26. Prince Henry
    Set up the first school of navigation in Portugal and wished to expand his power into North Africa.
  27. B. Dias
    Rounded the Southern tip of Africa in 1487, but decided not to embark on the more perilous aspect of the voyage to India.
  28. Vasco da Gama
    He actually decided to embark on the perilous voyage around the Southern tip of Africa to India in 1498.
  29. Tordesillas
    Treaty set up by Spanish pope Alexander VI Borgia to give Spain all legal claims to the western part of the "line" which moved several times.
  30. Columbus
    A Genoese sailor who had a map suggesting a westerly route across the Atlantic to Japan, China, and India.
  31. Ferdinand and Isabella
    Sponsored or "bankrolled" the voyages of Columbus.
  32. Americo Vespucci
    Made several voyages between 1499 and 1502 to the soon to be named for him American coast.
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Euro Review 1
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