1. what are the five nutrient groups?
    • water
    • proteins
    • carbs
    • fats
    • minerals and vitamens
  2. what is the most vital nutrient?
  3. why should pets be on high quality diets not be given supplements?
    • developmental problems in puppys
    • diets meet nutritional needs
  4. why is taurine inportant for cats?
    assential amino acid for maintaning adequate tissue levels
  5. what percentage of a diet can be exchanged for treats?
  6. why must protein be of high biological value?
    to be more easily digested and absorbed
  7. what is the definition of taurine?
    sulphur containing amino acid derived from animal protein
  8. differnce between carnivore and omnivore
    • carnivore-mainly protein
    • omnivore-protein and vegtables
  9. what does palatability mean?
    pleasentness of taste
  10. feeding a dog vegtables can make a dogs urine ......this is a concern because......?
    • alkaline
    • it can cause crystals and stone formation in the urine
  11. why are high quality diets more economical tha others?
    you feed less and still have more nutrients compacted
  12. pregnant and lactating animals how many more times of food?
  13. what are the clinical signs seen with poor nurtrition in pregnant and nursing mothers?
    • chronic diarrhea
    • anemia in bitch or pups
    • poor milk production
    • mother appears out of condition
    • fading puppy syndrome
  14. 2 reasons why free choice feeding for cats is not a good idea?
    • hard to regulate weight
    • nutritionally unbalanced
  15. what condition makes a dog more prone to joint problems?
  16. list four diets for an obese cats?
    • hills r/d
    • hills w/d
    • hills m/d
    • mcrc calorie control
  17. what type of diet will be Rx for a cat with FLUTD
    hills s/d
  18. name three diets that a cat with FLUTD could be prescribed for the rest of its life
    • MCRC Urinary S/O
    • iams vet formula urine low ph
    • hills c/d multi-care
  19. list four diets for growing cats and dogs
    • MCRC development kitten
    • hills healthy advantage puppy
    • Hills healthy advantage kitten
    • PVD pediatric puppy
  20. can hills healthy advantage be used as a maintenance diet for cats and dogs?
  21. list four diets for cats and dogs with skin allergies
    • MCRC hypo Hp-feline
    • MCRC skin care-canine
    • Hills z/d- feline
    • Hills z/d ultra (allergen-free) canine
  22. name the diet for dogs wiwht early dementia problems?
    • Hills b/d
    • Mcrc-calm
  23. what is the definition of the abbreviation n/d
  24. list 3 diets that are made specifically for dogs with skeletal problems
    • hills j/d
    • MCRC mobility support
    • PVD jm
  25. list three diets for dogs and cats with intestinal disorders
    • hills i/d
    • hills z/d ultra
    • mcrc gastro
  26. list four diets for kidney disease in cats
    • hills k/d
    • PVD NF
    • mcrc renal lp
    • mcrc reduced kidney
  27. two diets for animals with diabetes mellitus
    • MCRC diabetic
    • hills m/d
    • PVD-D/M
  28. list four post surgery diets for cats and dogs
    • hills a/d
    • iams vet formula max calorie
    • MCRC sensitivity
    • MCRC recovery

    All short term diets for puppy and kitten diet to give back fat
  29. what two diets are given specifically to older cats?
    • hills g/d
    • MCRC mature
  30. list three diets for both cats and dogs with heart disease
    • hills g/d
    • hills h/d
    • MCRC renal LP
  31. name one diet that helps cats with hairballs
    hills hairball formula
  32. list three diets for dogs and cats with heart disease
    • hills g/d
    • hills h/d
    • MCRC renal Lp
  33. cats need.....protein than dogs?
  34. which company doesnt make a vegetarian diet for dogs?
  35. a cat or dog with kidney problems needs less what in there diet?
  36. what are two types of carbohydrates and what is the differnce between them?
    insoluable (in-digestible) soluble (simple sugars or monosaccharides)
  37. what is a major benefits to feeding a dental formula as a maintenance diet?
    preventitive to dental disease
  38. cats usually there urine and dogs get........?
    • cats crystals
    • dogs stones
  39. which company first came out with prescription diets?
  40. what are three objectives to proper nutrition?
    • support normal growth
    • maintain health and activity
    • optimum reproduction
  41. what is a protein?
    organic compounds made up of amino acids essential part of the body mass. ie cells, blood , muscle
  42. what is a BARF diet?
    bones and raw food *(biologically appropriate raw food)
  43. what is a balanced diet
    diet made up of a essential nutrient in balanced proportions
  44. AAFCO
    associate american animal feed control officials
  45. what is a by-product?
    material generated incidentally to the production of something else. eg blood bone fat excludes, hair, hide
  46. what is the differnce between maintenance and theraputic diets?
    • maintenance is used to prevent medical conditions 
    • theraputic diets are usd to control existing conditions
  47. taurine
    sulphur containing amino acid derived from mammalian protein
  48. protein
    organic compound made up of chains of amino acid essential part of the body mass ie cells muscle blood diet must contain high proportion of protein to maintain body mass
  49. ash
    mineral content in food, usually magnesium
  50. carnivore
    meat eater
  51. omnivore
    meat and plant eater
  52. herbivore
    plant eater
  53. by-products
    materials generated incidentally to the production of something else eg blood bone fat. this excludes hair hide horns teeth hooves manure feathers and stomach contents
  54. meal feeding
    a measured portion of food taken at during a specific time frame
  55. balanced diet
    diet made up of all essential nutrients in balanced proportions
  56. palatability
    pleasentness of taste
  57. free-choice feeding
    free to eat as much as wanted whenever wanted (no measured proportions)
  58. ph:
    acidity or alkalinity (eg. of urine)
  59. over nutrition
    feeding in excess of requirements can lead to rapid weight gain, developmental or skeletal abnormalitys
  60. a/d
    hills-anorexia diet-mcrc recovery
  61. b/d 
    hills-brain diet-mcrc calm
  62. c/d
    hills crystal diet-mcrc urinary s/o
  63. n/d
    hills neoplasia diet- mcrc no equivalent
  64. d/d
    hills derm diet-mcrc skin support, hypo, hypo hp
  65. h/d
    hills heart diet-mcrc cardiac
  66. g/d
    hills geriatric-mcrc mature senior consult
  67. i/d
    hills intestinal- MCRC gastro
  68. j/d
    hills joint diet- mcrc mobility support
  69. k/d
    hills kidney-mcrc reduced protein, renal lp
  70. l/d
    hills liver diet-mcrc hepatic
  71. m/d
    hills mellitus (metabolic)-mcrc diabetic
  72. p/d
    hills pediatric-mcrc development
  73. r/d
    hills reducing-mcrc reducing, weight control, calorie control
  74. s/d
    hills stone diet-mcrc s/o
  75. u/d
    hills urate crystals-no equivalent
  76. w/d
    hills weight diet-mcrc weight control
  77. y/d
    hills hyperthyrioid-no equivalent
  78. z/d
    hills allergys-mcrc hypo
  79. z/d ultra
    hills allergys-mcrc hypo, vegetarian, sensetivity
  80. x/d
    hills oxalcate crystals- mcrc urinary s/o
  81. t/d
    hills-tooth-mcrc dental
  82. energy is provided by?  
    ingestion of fats, proteins, carbohydrates
  83. food energy is measured by what?
    the heat it produces
  84. heat of combustion
    heat produced by burning food energy
  85. what is energy measured in?
    kcals calories
  86. how is water obtained?
    from drinking water or from metabolic breakdown of fats, carbs and proteins
  87. how much water loss can be fatal?
  88. what can an animal survive after for long amounts of time?
    fat, glycogen and almost half of its protein
  89. what is the proteins function in the body?
    enzymes i.e digestive enzymes, hormones, (ie insulen) body secretions, saliva, and are critical to growing pets
  90. protein must be of....................and....................?
    high biological value and easily absorbed
  91. protein is critical to which pets?
    • growing pets
    • pets that exert themselfs physically
    • lactating animals
    • pregnant animals
    • animals that are producing new tissue
  92. what does the term carbohydrate cover?
    • molecules composed of carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  93. what affects do carbs have on the body/
    • provide energy
    • alter gi function
    • improve body function
  94. what are the two types of carbohydrates?
    • insoluble
    • soluble
  95. what are insoluble carbohydrates?
    indigestible which are called dietary fibre
  96. what are soluble carbs?
    simple sugars or monosaccharides which are easily absorbed require no digestion and are the only carbs used for energy
  97. what can fibre do to the stool?
    increase bulk of stool and produce larger softer stools which are easier to pass
  98. how does fiber alter fat and sugars?
    it alters the fat and sugar metabolism by decreasing fat absorption or increasing cholesterol excretion
  99. how does fibre help in insulin managment?
    alters insulen kinetics
  100. what are fats?
    • oils 
    • lipids
  101. what are fats needed for?
    • palatability
    • absorption of fat soluble vitamins (ADEK) 
    • source of essential fatty acids for cell membranes and hormone/enzyme production
  102. if a diet is high in protein and carbs what is not needed?
    fats are not needed
  103. how much energy does fat give to the body?
  104. what are minerals and vitamins?
    trace elements, they are vital for the body to function
  105. which 2 vitamins are water soluble?
    b and c
  106. which 4 vitamins are fat soluble
  107. what are vitamin diet supplements needed for?
    • acid base balance
    • structural integrity
    • maintenance of body fluid balances
    • cell function, muscle, nerve functions
    • production of enzymes (hormones and proteins that control metabolism)
  108. what are the five objectives for proper nutrition
    • support normal growth
    • allow achievement of genetic potential
    • maintain health and activity
    • optimum reproduction
    • optimum quality of life of the pet
  109. what percent of animals are overweight?
  110. antioxidants (anti-free radicals)
    • fight aging, prevent and treat cardiovascular disease, cancer, nervous diseas and replenishment after excretment
    • exp blueberries
  111. chondroitin/glucosamine
    prevents and treats osteo arthritis problems by limiting the degeneration of cartilage
  112. green lipped mussel
    extract of the mussel which reduces pain and inflammation of the joint mobility, also fights oxidation and maintains cartilage
  113. curcumin
    from tumeric or curcuma powder, has effects on skin, liver, platelets and has anti cancer properties
  114. aloe vera
    has positive affects on the skin, it activates collegen for healing, anti inflam propertys, stimulates immune function and fights oxidation
  115. probiotics
    a living organism admin orally to help balance intestinal flora this may help to treat or prevent digestive problems. also have impact on overall health and immunity
Card Set
diet exam study cards